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Article

Peruvian chicha: A Focus on the Microbial Populations of This Ancient Maize-Based Fermented Beverage

1
DISTAS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy. Biotechnology Research Centre (CRB), via Milano 24, 26100 Cremona, Italy
2
Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria, Centro di Ricerca per la Genomica Vegetale (CREA-GPG), 29017 Fiorenzuola d’Arda, Italy
3
Universidad Católica Sedes Sapientia, Esquina Constelaciones y Sol de Oro S/N, Urbanización Sol de Oro, Cercado de Lima 15302, Peru
4
INTA EEA Famaillá, Tucumán 4172, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010093
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 30 December 2019 / Accepted: 1 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artisanal Foods: Challenges for Microbiological Control and Safety)
Peruvian chicha de jora is one of the most ancient traditional beverages produced through maize fermentation, still popular to modern consumers, but less studied in terms of microbial compositions. In this work, the bacterial biodiversity of 27 chicha samples collected from 14 different “chicherias” in seven provinces of Peru was investigated by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). A large dissimilarity in chicha microbial composition was a direct consequence of ingredients, manufacturing processes and geographical influences. The core microbiome was represented by six main genera, belonging to Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB). Lactobacillus prevailed (more than 50% of sequences belong to this genus) followed by Weissella, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Streptococcus. Acetobacter was the only AAB genus identified in chicha. The occurrence of sequences associated to spoiling and pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus, Clostridium, and Enterobacteriaceae, was observed only in a few samples, validating the safety of this beverage. Predictive functional annotation of metagenomic sequences revealed that carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms and coenzyme transport are the main KEGG categories associated to chicha fermentation pathways. The old recipes and traditional processing of each chicherias helps maintain native microorganisms as a resource of biodiversity with potential technological and health-beneficial properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicha de jora; maize; fermented beverage; NGS; bacterial communities chicha de jora; maize; fermented beverage; NGS; bacterial communities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bassi, D.; Orrù, L.; Cabanillas Vasquez, J.; Cocconcelli, P.S.; Fontana, C. Peruvian chicha: A Focus on the Microbial Populations of This Ancient Maize-Based Fermented Beverage. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010093

AMA Style

Bassi D, Orrù L, Cabanillas Vasquez J, Cocconcelli PS, Fontana C. Peruvian chicha: A Focus on the Microbial Populations of This Ancient Maize-Based Fermented Beverage. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(1):93. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010093

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bassi, Daniela, Luigi Orrù, Jeison Cabanillas Vasquez, Pier S. Cocconcelli, and Cecilia Fontana. 2020. "Peruvian chicha: A Focus on the Microbial Populations of This Ancient Maize-Based Fermented Beverage" Microorganisms 8, no. 1: 93. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8010093

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