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Article

Abundance and Antimicrobial Resistance of Three Bacterial Species along a Complete Wastewater Pathway

1
Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, 8900 CC Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Izore, Centrum Infectieziekten Friesland, 8900 JA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands
4
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands
5
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Reference and Research Laboratory on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections, National Microbiology Center, Institute of Health Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(9), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090312
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 3 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Wastewater Treatment)
After consumption, antibiotic residues and exposed bacteria end up via the feces in wastewater, and therefore wastewater is believed to play an important role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We investigated the abundance and AMR profiles of three different species over a complete wastewater pathway during a one-year sampling campaign, as well as including antimicrobial consumption and antimicrobial concentrations analysis. A total of 2886 isolates (997 Escherichia coli, 863 Klebsiella spp., and 1026 Aeromonas spp.) were cultured from the 211 samples collected. The bacterial AMR profiles mirrored the antimicrobial consumption in the respective locations, which were highest in the hospital. However, the contribution of hospital wastewater to AMR found in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was below 10% for all antimicrobials tested. We found high concentrations (7–8 logs CFU/L) of the three bacterial species in all wastewaters, and they survived the wastewater treatment (effluent concentrations were around 5 log CFU/L), showing an increase of E. coli in the receiving river after the WWTP discharge. Although the WWTP had no effect on the proportion of AMR, bacterial species and antimicrobial residues were still measured in the effluent, showing the role of wastewater contamination in the environmental surface water. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; wastewater pathway; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; Aeromonas spp.; bacterial abundance; antimicrobial consumption; clinical wastewater; wastewater treatment plant; antimicrobial residues antimicrobial resistance; wastewater pathway; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; Aeromonas spp.; bacterial abundance; antimicrobial consumption; clinical wastewater; wastewater treatment plant; antimicrobial residues
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MDPI and ACS Style

Verburg, I.; García-Cobos, S.; Hernández Leal, L.; Waar, K.; Friedrich, A.W.; Schmitt, H. Abundance and Antimicrobial Resistance of Three Bacterial Species along a Complete Wastewater Pathway. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 312. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090312

AMA Style

Verburg I, García-Cobos S, Hernández Leal L, Waar K, Friedrich AW, Schmitt H. Abundance and Antimicrobial Resistance of Three Bacterial Species along a Complete Wastewater Pathway. Microorganisms. 2019; 7(9):312. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090312

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verburg, Ilse, Silvia García-Cobos, Lucia Hernández Leal, Karola Waar, Alex W. Friedrich, and Heike Schmitt. 2019. "Abundance and Antimicrobial Resistance of Three Bacterial Species along a Complete Wastewater Pathway" Microorganisms 7, no. 9: 312. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7090312

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