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Review

Gut Dysbiosis and the Intestinal Microbiome: Streptococcus thermophilus a Key Probiotic for Reducing Uremia

1
Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia
2
Medlab Clinical, Sydney NSW 2015, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(8), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7080228
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 27 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
In the intestines, probiotics can produce antagonistic effects such as antibiotic–like compounds, bactericidal proteins such as bacteriocins, and encourage the production of metabolic end products that may assist in preventing infections from various pathobionts (capable of pathogenic activity) microbes. Metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria and the adoptions of molecular methods to cross-examine and describe the human microbiome have refreshed interest in the discipline of nephology. As such, the adjunctive administration of probiotics for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) posits that certain probiotic bacteria can reduce the intestinal burden of uremic toxins. Uremic toxins eventuate from the over manifestation of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity, increased activity of the hexosamine and polyol biochemical and synthetic pathways. The accumulation of advanced glycation end products that have been regularly associated with a dysbiotic colonic microbiome drives the overproduction of uremic toxins in the colon and the consequent local pro-inflammatory processes. Intestinal dysbiosis associated with significant shifts in abundance and diversity of intestinal bacteria with a resultant and maintained uremia promoting an uncontrolled mucosal pro-inflammatory state. In this narrative review we further address the efficacy of probiotics and highlighted in part the probiotic bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus as an important modulator of uremic toxins in the gut of patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. In conjunction with prudent nutritional practices it may be possible to prevent the progression of CKD and significantly downregulate mucosal pro-inflammatory activity with the administration of probiotics that contain S. thermophilus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptococcus thermophilus; lactic acid bacteria; chronic kidney disease; uremic toxins; probiotic treatments; inflammation; mucosal immunity Streptococcus thermophilus; lactic acid bacteria; chronic kidney disease; uremic toxins; probiotic treatments; inflammation; mucosal immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vitetta, L.; Llewellyn, H.; Oldfield, D. Gut Dysbiosis and the Intestinal Microbiome: Streptococcus thermophilus a Key Probiotic for Reducing Uremia. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7080228

AMA Style

Vitetta L, Llewellyn H, Oldfield D. Gut Dysbiosis and the Intestinal Microbiome: Streptococcus thermophilus a Key Probiotic for Reducing Uremia. Microorganisms. 2019; 7(8):228. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7080228

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vitetta, Luis, Hannah Llewellyn, and Debbie Oldfield. 2019. "Gut Dysbiosis and the Intestinal Microbiome: Streptococcus thermophilus a Key Probiotic for Reducing Uremia" Microorganisms 7, no. 8: 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7080228

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