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Open AccessArticle

Modulation of Fatty Acid Composition of Aspergillus oryzae in Response to Ethanol Stress

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Bioprocess Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013, China
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Microorganisms 2019, 7(6), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7060158
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 24 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
The koji mold Aspergillus oryzae is widely adopted for producing rice wine, wherein koji mold saccharifies rice starch and sake yeast ferments glucose to ethanol. During rice wine brewing, the accumulating ethanol becomes a major source of stress for A. oryzae, and there is a decline in hydrolysis efficiency. However, the protective mechanisms of A. oryzae against ethanol stress are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethanol adversity caused a significant inhibition of mycelium growth and conidia formation in A. oryzae, and this suppressive effect increased with ethanol concentration. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that ethanol uptake triggered internal cellular perturbations, such as irregular nuclei and the aggregation of scattered vacuoles in A. oryzae cells. Metabolic analysis uncovered an increase in fatty acid unsaturation under high ethanol conditions, in which a large proportion of stearic acid was converted into linoleic acid, and the expression of related fatty acid desaturases was activated. Our results therefore improve the understanding of ethanol adaptation mechanisms in A. oryzae and offer target genes for ethanol tolerance enhancement via genetic engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus oryzae; ethanol stress; linoleic acid; fatty acid unsaturation Aspergillus oryzae; ethanol stress; linoleic acid; fatty acid unsaturation
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Ma, L.; Fu, L.; Hu, Z.; Li, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, Z.; Jiang, C.; Zeng, B. Modulation of Fatty Acid Composition of Aspergillus oryzae in Response to Ethanol Stress. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 158.

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