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Broad Environmental Tolerance for a Salicola Host-Phage Pair Isolated from the Cargill Solar Saltworks, Newark, CA, USA

Department of Biological Sciences, California State University, Long Beach, CA 90840, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to the preparation of this manuscript.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7040106
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
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Abstract

Phages greatly influence the ecology and evolution of their bacterial hosts; however, compared to hosts, a relatively low number of phages, especially halophilic phages, have been studied. This study describes a comparative investigation of physicochemical tolerance between a strain of the halophilic bacterium, Salicola, isolated from the Cargill Saltworks (Newark, CA, USA) and its associated phage. The host grew in media between pH 6–8.5, had a salinity growth optimum of 20% total salts (ranging from 10%–30%) and an upper temperature growth limit of 48 °C. The host utilized 61 of 190 substrates tested using BIOLOG Phenotype MicroArrays. The CGφ29 phage, one of only four reported Salicola phages, is a DNA virus of the Siphoviridae family. Overall, the phage tolerated a broader range of environmental conditions than its host (salinity 0–30% total salts; pH 3–9; upper thermal limit 80 °C) and is the most thermotolerant halophilic phage ever reported. This study is the most comprehensive investigation to date of a Salicola host–phage pair and provides novel insights into extreme environmental tolerances among bacteriophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salicola; phage; halophile; saltern; thermotolerant Salicola; phage; halophile; saltern; thermotolerant
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Rodela, M.L.; Sabet, S.; Peterson, A.; Dillon, J.G. Broad Environmental Tolerance for a Salicola Host-Phage Pair Isolated from the Cargill Solar Saltworks, Newark, CA, USA. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 106.

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