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Identification, Genotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Brucella spp. Isolated from Livestock in Egypt

Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, 07743 Jena, Germany
Institute for Animal Hygiene and Environmental Health, Free University of Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 35200 Jhang, Pakistan
Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Agricultural Research Center, 11517 Abbasaia-Cairo, Egypt
Department of Brucellosis, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 12618 Dokki-Giza, Egypt
Animal Reproduction Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 12556 Al Ahram-Giza, Egypt
Provincial Laboratory, Institute of Animal Health Research, 35516 Mansoura, Egypt
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr Elsheikh University, 33516 Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(12), 603;
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 16 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Livestock)
Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis worldwide with economic and public health impacts. The aim of the present study was to identify Brucella (B.) spp. isolated from animal populations located in different districts of Egypt and to determine their antimicrobial resistance. In total, 34-suspected Brucella isolates were recovered from lymph nodes, milk, and fetal abomasal contents of infected cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats from nine districts in Egypt. The isolates were identified by microbiological methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Differentiation and genotyping were confirmed using multiplex PCR for B. abortus, Brucella melitensis, Brucella ovis, and Brucella suis (AMOS) and Bruce-ladder PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing against clinically used antimicrobial agents (chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, imipenem, rifampicin, streptomycin, and tetracycline) was performed using E-Test. The antimicrobial resistance-associated genes and mutations in Brucella isolates were confirmed using molecular tools. In total, 29 Brucella isolates (eight B. abortus biovar 1 and 21 B. melitensis biovar 3) were identified and typed. The resistance of B. melitensis to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, imipenem, rifampicin, and streptomycin were 76.2%, 19.0%, 76.2%, 66.7%, and 4.8%, respectively. Whereas, 25.0%, 87.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5% of B. abortus were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, imipenem, and rifampicin, respectively. Mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampicin resistance were identified in all phenotypically resistant isolates. Mutations in gyrA and gyrB genes associated with ciprofloxacin resistance were identified in four phenotypically resistant isolates of B. melitensis. This is the first study highlighting the antimicrobial resistance in Brucella isolated from different animal species in Egypt. Mutations detected in genes associated with antimicrobial resistance unravel the molecular mechanisms of resistance in Brucella isolates from Egypt. The mutations in the rpoB gene in phenotypically resistant B. abortus isolates in this study were reported for the first time in Egypt. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brucella; Egypt; antimicrobial resistance; resistance-associated genes; mutation Brucella; Egypt; antimicrobial resistance; resistance-associated genes; mutation
MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, A.U.; Shell, W.S.; Melzer, F.; Sayour, A.E.; Ramadan, E.S.; Elschner, M.C.; Moawad, A.A.; Roesler, U.; Neubauer, H.; El-Adawy, H. Identification, Genotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Brucella spp. Isolated from Livestock in Egypt. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 603.

AMA Style

Khan AU, Shell WS, Melzer F, Sayour AE, Ramadan ES, Elschner MC, Moawad AA, Roesler U, Neubauer H, El-Adawy H. Identification, Genotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Brucella spp. Isolated from Livestock in Egypt. Microorganisms. 2019; 7(12):603.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Aman U., Waleed S. Shell, Falk Melzer, Ashraf E. Sayour, Eman S. Ramadan, Mandy C. Elschner, Amira A. Moawad, Uwe Roesler, Heinrich Neubauer, and Hosny El-Adawy. 2019. "Identification, Genotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Brucella spp. Isolated from Livestock in Egypt" Microorganisms 7, no. 12: 603.

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