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Open AccessArticle

Shift of Aromatic Profile in Probiotic Hemp Drink Formulations: A Metabolomic Approach

1
DiSTAL―Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, V.le Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
Food Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34467 Sarıyer, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(11), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7110509
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 26 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
Vegetal drinks as a substitute for milk consumption are raising striking interest in the food industry. Soy and rice drinks are the most successful milk substitutes but are low in protein and fiber contents, are rich in sugars, and their cultivation systems are unsustainable; thus, alternative vegetal sources to resolve these limits must be found. A winning candidate could be hemp seed, which is a powerhouse of nutrients, is sugarless, rich in fiber and proteins, and little land and nutrients demanding. The aim is to develop novel drinks obtained from hemp seeds mixed or not with soy and rice and fermented with probiotics (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lb. plantarum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum). The drinks were characterized for their microbial growth, by means of culture-dependent and -independent techniques, and for their volatilome, by means of solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis. The results showed that hemp seed drinks have a specific aroma and its compounds are dependent on the type of formulation and to the probiotic used. For example, in hemp seed drinks, 2-heptanol, 2-methyl, 2,4-decadienal, 2-butanone, 3-hydroxy, 2,3-butanedione, and propanoic acid were fine descriptors of probiotics fermentations. Multivariate analysis of volatile metabolites and their correlation to some physiological parameters and nutritional values offered a novel approach to assess the quality of functional hemp drinks which could result in a decisional tool for industrial applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum; Lactobacillus fermentum; Bifidobacterium bifidum; functional food; milk substitute; SPME-GC-MS Lactobacillus plantarum; Lactobacillus fermentum; Bifidobacterium bifidum; functional food; milk substitute; SPME-GC-MS
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Nissen, L.; Demircan, B.; Taneyo-Saa, D.L.; Gianotti, A. Shift of Aromatic Profile in Probiotic Hemp Drink Formulations: A Metabolomic Approach. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 509.

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