Next Article in Journal
Prevalence of Resistance to β-Lactam Antibiotics and bla Genes Among Commensal Haemophilus parainfluenzae Isolates from Respiratory Microbiota in Poland
Next Article in Special Issue
A MATE Transporter is Involved in Pathogenicity and IAA Homeostasis in the Hyperplastic Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. nerii
Previous Article in Journal
One Small RNA of Fusarium graminearum Targets and Silences CEBiP Gene in Common Wheat
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maize Inoculation with Microbial Consortia: Contrasting Effects on Rhizosphere Activities, Nutrient Acquisition and Early Growth in Different Soils
Open AccessArticle

Peroxynitrite Generation and Increased Heterotrophic Capacity Are Linked to the Disruption of the Coral–Dinoflagellate Symbiosis in a Scleractinian and Hydrocoral Species

1
Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Oceanographic Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande, Av. Itália, Km 8, Rio Grande, RS 96203-900, Brazil
2
Coral Vivo Institute, Rua dos Coqueiros, Parque Yaya, Santa Cruz Cabrália, BA 45.807-000, Brazil
3
Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Marine Department, 8 Quai Antoine 1er, MC-98000, Monaco
4
Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo. Praça do Oceanográfico, 191-05508-120 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
5
Chemistry Institute, University of São Paulo. Av Prof Lineu Prestes, 748-05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
6
Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Biological Science Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande, Av. Itália, Km 8, Rio Grande, RS 96203-900, Brazil
7
Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo. São Paulo, SP 05508-090, Brazil
8
Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George’s GE01, Bermuda
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100426
Received: 11 July 2019 / Revised: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macro and Microorganism Interactions)
Ocean warming is one of the greatest global threats to coral reef ecosystems; it leads to the disruption of the coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis (bleaching) and to nutrient starvation, because corals mostly rely on autotrophy (i.e., the supply of photosynthates from the dinoflagellate symbionts) for their energy requirements. Although coral bleaching has been well studied, the early warning signs of bleaching, as well as the capacity of corals to shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy, are still under investigation. In this study, we evaluated the bleaching occurrence of the scleractinian coral Mussismillia harttii and the hydrocoral Millepora alcicornis during a natural thermal stress event, under the 2015–2016 El Niño influence in three reef sites of the South Atlantic. We focused on the link between peroxynitrite (ONOO) generation and coral bleaching, as ONOO has been very poorly investigated in corals and never during a natural bleaching event. We also investigated the natural trophic plasticity of the two corals through the use of new lipid biomarkers. The results obtained first demonstrate that ONOO is linked to the onset and intensity of bleaching in both scleractinian corals and hydrocorals. Indeed, ONOO concentrations were correlated with bleaching intensity, with the highest levels preceding the highest bleaching intensity. The time lag between bleaching and ONOO peak was, however, species-specific. In addition, we observed that elevated temperatures forced heterotrophy in scleractinian corals, as Mu. harttii presented high heterotrophic activity 15 to 30 days prior bleaching occurrence. On the contrary, a lower heterotrophic activity was monitored for the hydrocoral Mi. alicornis, which also experienced higher bleaching levels compared to Mu. hartii. Overall, we showed that the levels of ONOO in coral tissue, combined to the heterotrophic capacity, are two good proxies explaining the intensity of coral bleaching. View Full-Text
Keywords: coral reefs; heterotrophy; hydrocorals; oxidative stress; reactive nitrogen species coral reefs; heterotrophy; hydrocorals; oxidative stress; reactive nitrogen species
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Marangoni, L.F.B.; Mies, M.; Güth, A.Z.; Banha, T.N.S.; Inague, A.; Fonseca, J.S.; Dalmolin, C.; Faria, S.C.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Bianchini, A. Peroxynitrite Generation and Increased Heterotrophic Capacity Are Linked to the Disruption of the Coral–Dinoflagellate Symbiosis in a Scleractinian and Hydrocoral Species. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 426.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop