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Open AccessArticle

Detection of Increased Relative Expression Units of Bacteroides and Prevotella, and Decreased Clostridium leptum in Stool Samples from Brazilian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Pilot Study

1
Microbiome Study Group, School of Health Sciences Dr. Paulo Prata, Barretos, São Paulo 14785-002, Brazil
2
Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo 14784-400, Brazil
3
Barretos Medical Specialties Outpatient (AME), Barretos, São Paulo 14785-000, Brazil
4
Microbiology Program, Institute of Biosciences, Humanities and Exact Sciences (IBILCE), São Paulo State University (UNESP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, São Paulo 15054-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100413
Received: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 25 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gastrointestinal Microbiota Impacts Human Health and Disease)
Interactions between gut microbes and disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have been proposed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of some specific bacteria in stool samples from Brazilian RA patients receiving DMARDs and correlate these data with diet, clinical parameters, and cytokines. Stool samples were used for gut bacteria evalutation by qPCR. Serum samples were used to quantify IL-4 and IL-10 by flow cytometer. Statistics were performed by Pearson chi-square, Mann–Whitney U test, and Spearman’s correlation. The study included 20 RA patients and 30 healthy controls. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in dietary habits between RA patients and controls. Concerning gut bacteria, we observed an increase in relative expression units (REU) of Bacteroides and Prevotella species in stool samples from patients, and a decrease in REU of Clostridium leptum when compared with healthy controls. Positive correlation between Prevotella and rheumatoid factor was detected. The IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations were increased in patients when compared with controls. We concluded that gut bacteria are different between RA patients receiving DMARDs and healthy controls. Further studies are necessary to determine the real role of gut microbes and their metabolities in clinical response to different DMARDs in RA patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; disease modifying antirheumatic drugs; diet; gut bacteria; cytokines rheumatoid arthritis; disease modifying antirheumatic drugs; diet; gut bacteria; cytokines
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Rodrigues, G.S.P.; Cayres, L.C.F.; Gonçalves, F.P.; Takaoka, N.N.C.; Lengert, A.H.; Tansini, A.; Brisotti, J.L.; Sasdelli, C.B.G.; de Oliveira, G.L.V. Detection of Increased Relative Expression Units of Bacteroides and Prevotella, and Decreased Clostridium leptum in Stool Samples from Brazilian Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Pilot Study. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 413.

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