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Review

Algae and Their Metabolites as Potential Bio-Pesticides

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Laboratory of Systems Microbiology and Applied Genomics, Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Patras, 2 Seferi St., 30131 Agrinio, Greece
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Research and Development Section, PerNaturam GmbH, 56290 Gödenroth, Germany
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Bavarian NMR Center—Structural Membrane Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany
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Laboratory for Valorization and Conservation of Biological Resources, Faculty of Sciences, University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Boumerdes 35000, Algeria
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Laboratory of Molecular Physiology of Plants, Borj-Cedria Biotechnology Center. BP. 901, Hammam-Lif 2050, Tunisia
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Institute of Molecular Physiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, 55128 Mainz, Germany
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Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Keçiören, Ankara 06135, Turkey
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Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67132 Xanthi, Greece
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Department of Bioengineering, Bursa Technical University, Bursa 16310, Turkey
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcin Ożarowski and Tomasz M. Karpiński
Microorganisms 2022, 10(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020307
Received: 10 December 2021 / Revised: 23 January 2022 / Accepted: 25 January 2022 / Published: 27 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Products)
An increasing human population necessitates more food production, yet current techniques in agriculture, such as chemical pesticide use, have negative impacts on the ecosystems and strong public opposition. Alternatives to synthetic pesticides should be safe for humans, the environment, and be sustainable. Extremely diverse ecological niches and millions of years of competition have shaped the genomes of algae to produce a myriad of substances that may serve humans in various biotechnological areas. Among the thousands of described algal species, only a small number have been investigated for valuable metabolites, yet these revealed the potential of algal metabolites as bio-pesticides. This review focuses on macroalgae and microalgae (including cyanobacteria) and their extracts or purified compounds, that have proven to be effective antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, nematocides, insecticides, herbicides, and plant growth stimulants. Moreover, the mechanisms of action of the majority of these metabolites against plant pests are thoroughly discussed. The available information demonstrated herbicidal activities via inhibition of photosynthesis, antimicrobial activities via induction of plant defense responses, inhibition of quorum sensing and blocking virus entry, and insecticidal activities via neurotoxicity. The discovery of antimetabolites also seems to hold great potential as one recent example showed antimicrobial and herbicidal properties. Algae, especially microalgae, represent a vast untapped resource for discovering novel and safe biopesticide compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; algal extracts; antimicrobial; plant defense; photosynthesis cyanobacteria; algal extracts; antimicrobial; plant defense; photosynthesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Asimakis, E.; Shehata, A.A.; Eisenreich, W.; Acheuk, F.; Lasram, S.; Basiouni, S.; Emekci, M.; Ntougias, S.; Taner, G.; May-Simera, H.; Yilmaz, M.; Tsiamis, G. Algae and Their Metabolites as Potential Bio-Pesticides. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 307. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020307

AMA Style

Asimakis E, Shehata AA, Eisenreich W, Acheuk F, Lasram S, Basiouni S, Emekci M, Ntougias S, Taner G, May-Simera H, Yilmaz M, Tsiamis G. Algae and Their Metabolites as Potential Bio-Pesticides. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(2):307. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020307

Chicago/Turabian Style

Asimakis, Elias, Awad A. Shehata, Wolfgang Eisenreich, Fatma Acheuk, Salma Lasram, Shereen Basiouni, Mevlüt Emekci, Spyridon Ntougias, Gökçe Taner, Helen May-Simera, Mete Yilmaz, and George Tsiamis. 2022. "Algae and Their Metabolites as Potential Bio-Pesticides" Microorganisms 10, no. 2: 307. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020307

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