For the last four decades, knowledge about human toxocariasis with regard to its epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, and imaging or laboratory diagnosis has substantially progressed. Knowledge about specific therapy with anthelmintics has lagged behind. To date, only four drugs are registered for human use, and their efficacy has rarely been assessed in prospective controlled trials. It is likely that the repurposing of potent anthelmintics from veterinary medicine will improve this situation. Due to its wide availability and a lack of major side effects during short regimens, albendazole has become the drug of choice. However, its efficacy should be more precisely assessed. The role of anthelmintics in the treatment of neurological or ocular toxocariasis remains to be clarified. Prophylactic measures in humans or companion animals are efficient and represent first-line treatments for the control of this zoonosis. Unfortunately, their implementation in areas or countries where toxocariasis epidemiology is driven by poverty is quite difficult or unrealistic.
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