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Review

Citrus Stubborn Disease: Current Insights on an Enigmatic Problem Prevailing in Citrus Orchards

1
Laboratoire de Virologie, Microbiologie et Qualité/Ecotoxicologie et Biodiversité, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Mohammedia 20650, Morocco
2
Plant Protection Laboratory, Regional Center of Agricultural Research of Oujda, National Institute of Agricultural Research, Avenue Mohamed VI, BP428 Oujda, Oujda 60000, Morocco
3
Unité de Recherche Résistance Induite et Bio-Protection des Plantes-EA 4707, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51100 Reims, France
4
Phytopathology Unit, Department of Plant Protection, Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture de Meknès, Meknes 50001, Morocco
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dawn L. Arnold
Microorganisms 2022, 10(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10010183
Received: 12 December 2021 / Revised: 5 January 2022 / Accepted: 12 January 2022 / Published: 14 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Hidden World within Plants)
Citrus stubborn was initially observed in California in 1915 and was later proven as a graft-transmissible disease in 1942. In the field, diseased citrus trees have compressed and stunted appearances, and yield poor-quality fruits with little market value. The disease is caused by Spiroplasma citri, a phloem-restricted pathogenic mollicute, which belongs to the Spiroplasmataceae family (Mollicutes). S. citri has the largest genome of any Mollicutes investigated, with a genome size of roughly 1780 Kbp. It is a helical, motile mollicute that lacks a cell wall and peptidoglycan. Several quick and sensitive molecular-based and immuno-enzymatic pathogen detection technologies are available. Infected weeds are the primary source of transmission to citrus, with only a minor percentage of transmission from infected citrus to citrus. Several phloem-feeding leafhopper species (Cicadellidae, Hemiptera) support the natural spread of S. citri in a persistent, propagative manner. S. citri-free buds are used in new orchard plantings and bud certification, and indexing initiatives have been launched. Further, a quarantine system for newly introduced types has been implemented to limit citrus stubborn disease (CSD). The present state of knowledge about CSD around the world is summarized in this overview, where recent advances in S. citri detection, characterization, control and eradication were highlighted to prevent or limit disease spread through the adoption of best practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spiroplasma citri; citrus; mollicutes; transmission; diagnostic; leafhoppers; Morocco Spiroplasma citri; citrus; mollicutes; transmission; diagnostic; leafhoppers; Morocco
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sagouti, T.; Belabess, Z.; Rhallabi, N.; Barka, E.A.; Tahiri, A.; Lahlali, R. Citrus Stubborn Disease: Current Insights on an Enigmatic Problem Prevailing in Citrus Orchards. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10010183

AMA Style

Sagouti T, Belabess Z, Rhallabi N, Barka EA, Tahiri A, Lahlali R. Citrus Stubborn Disease: Current Insights on an Enigmatic Problem Prevailing in Citrus Orchards. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(1):183. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10010183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sagouti, Tourya, Zineb Belabess, Naima Rhallabi, Essaid A. Barka, Abdessalem Tahiri, and Rachid Lahlali. 2022. "Citrus Stubborn Disease: Current Insights on an Enigmatic Problem Prevailing in Citrus Orchards" Microorganisms 10, no. 1: 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10010183

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