# Real-Time Implementation of a New MPPT Control Method for a DC-DC Boost Converter Used in a PEM Fuel Cell Power System

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. PEM Fuel Cell Stack

#### 2.1. Operating Principle

#### 2.2. Model and Analysis

## 3. MPPT Control Design

#### 3.1. DC/DC Boost Converter

#### 3.2. Reference Current Estimator ${I}_{mpp}$

^{TM}(CFT) which provides functions and applications for fitting curves and surfaces to data. The CFT bolsters non-parametric modeling techniques such as smoothing, splines, and interpolation. It also provides optimized solver parameters so as to improve the quality of the fit. In order to construct the MPP curve, the following steps should be performed:

- Gather the data of ${P}_{max}$ and ${I}_{max}$ for each P-I polarization curve in two vectors and load this data at the MATLAB command line. The experimental data obtained from the FC-42 Evaluation Kit is enlisted in Table 1.
- Execute CFT by entering the function “sftool” or “cftool” in the Command Window.
- Select ${I}_{max}$ as X data, and ${P}_{max}$ as Y data so as to import the database. The CFT will create a default interpolation to fit the loaded data.
- Using the fit category drop-down list (Interpolant, Polynomial, Fourier, Gaussian, Weibull…), select various types and try to find the best curve by comparing the graphical and numerical fit results including fitted coefficients and the goodness of fit (GOF). Regarding to the latter mentioned, it includes the sum of squared due to error (SSE), the R-square, the adjusted R-square and the root mean squared error (RMSE); these metrics are tools that contribute to find the best curve that fits the data, for instance, a small SSE indicates a good fitting.
- Export the best fit to the Matlab workspace.

#### 3.3. Current Regulation

## 4. Description of the Experimental System

- Stack current (with an accuracy of 0.8 A)
- Stack voltage (with an accuracy of 0.1 A)
- Stack power (calculated)
- Cooling temperature ${T}_{1}$ (with an accuracy of $0.7$ ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$)
- Exhaust air temperature ${T}_{2}$ (with an accuracy of $0.7$ ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$)
- hydrogen inlet pressure ${P}_{1}$
- hydrogen operating pressure ${P}_{2}$
- Excess air (calculated)

^{TM}i7 CPU; RAM:16 GB; Hard disk space: 500 GB; ports: 6 free USB ports; graphical user interface with resolution of 1920 × 1200 pixels; and I/O boards interface for physical interactions with the DS1202.

## 5. Results and Discussion

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

PEM | Proton Exchange Membrane |

MPPT | Maximum Power Point Tracker |

HOSM | High-order sliding mode |

RCE | Reference Current Estimator |

HO-PCL | High-Order Prescribed Convergence Law |

FOCV | Fractional Open Circuit Voltage |

HC | Hill Climbing |

P&O | Perturb and Observation |

IC | Incremental Conductance |

GSS | Golden Section Search |

NQI | Newton’s Quadratic Interpolation |

ESC | Extremum Seeking Control |

SMC | Sliding Mode Control |

MPC | Model Predictive Control |

FLC | Fuzzy Logic Control |

BSA | Backstepping Algorithm |

GAs | Genetic Algorithms |

PSO | Particle Swarm Optimization |

CS | Cuckoo Search |

NIA | Nature-Inspired Algorithms |

RLGA | Recurrent Learning Gradient Algorithm |

FPA | Flower Pollination Algorithm |

NNC | Neural Network Control |

CPSO | Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization |

MPC | Model Predictive Control |

NGMPC | Neural Generalized MPC |

MPP | Maximum Power Point |

PID | Proportional-Integral Derivative |

GWO | Grey Wolf Optimizer |

SSA | Slap Swarm Algorithm |

GAO | Grey Antlion Optimization |

IRA | Incremental Resistance algorithm |

MBA | Mine Blast Algorithm |

PI | Proportional-Integral |

CCM | Continuous-Conduction Mode |

DCM | Discontinuous-Conduction Mode |

CFT | Curve Fitting Toolbox |

GOF | Goodness Of Fit |

SSE | Sum of Squared due to Error |

RMSE | Root Mean Squared Error |

RTI | Real-Time Interface |

ADC | Analog to Digital Converter |

PEL | programmable electronic load |

UPV | Universidad del Pais Vasco |

EHU | Euskal Herriko Uniberstsitatea |

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**Figure 14.**Experimental power and potential Vs current characteristic curves of the FC-42 Evaluation Kit.

**Figure 17.**Control results: (

**A**) the converter output current; (

**B**) the converter output voltage; (

**C**) the converter output power.

P_{max} | 363 | $362.6$ | $367.2$ | 361 | 336 | $357.8$ | 346 |

I_{max} | $16.89$ | $16.88$ | $16.92$ | $16.86$ | $16.77$ | $16.83$ | $16.80$ |

Goodness of the fit | ||||

SSE: $6873\times {10}^{-2}$ | R-square: $9998\times {10}^{-4}$ | Adjusted R-square: $9996\times {10}^{-4}$ | RMSE: $3708\times {10}^{-3}$ | |

Coefficients with 95% confidence bounds | ||||

${P}_{1}=-1514\times {10}^{-9}$ | ${P}_{2}=1034\times {10}^{-7}$ | ${P}_{3}=-2898\times {10}^{-6}$ | ${P}_{4}=433\times {10}^{-4}$ | ${P}_{5}=-3741\times {10}^{-4}$ |

${P}_{6}=1887\times {10}^{-3}$ | ${P}_{7}=-5321\times {10}^{-3}$ | ${P}_{8}=7463\times {10}^{-3}$ | ${P}_{9}=-3863\times {10}^{-3}$ | ${P}_{10}=2661\times {10}^{-5}$ |

General Properties | Electrical Properties | ||

Type | FC-42/HLC (42 cells) | Operating voltage | 20–45 V |

Cooling | Liquid (drinking water) | Open-circuit voltage | 36–42 V |

Fuel | Hydrogen ${H}_{2}$ | Nominal stack voltage | 24 V |

Service life | >1500 h | Booster voltage | 12 V (11–14 V) |

W× D× H (mm) | 168 × 230 × 115 | Operating current | 0–30 A |

Total weight | 17.1 kg | Nominal stack current | 15 A |

Starting time | 2 min | Nominal stack power | 360 W |

Noise | Max 65 dB | Power consumption | 70 W |

Thermal Properties | Fuel Properties | ||

Max. temperature of the surface | 60 ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ | ${H}_{2}$ inlet pressure ${P}_{1}$ | 1–11 bar |

Exhaust air temperature | 10–60 ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ | ${H}_{2}$ operating pressure ${P}_{2}$ | 50–360 mbar |

Ambient temperature | 10–30 ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ | Purity of ${H}_{2}$ | 99.99% |

Coolant temperature | 10–57 ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ | ${H}_{2}$ Consumption | 0–4 L/min |

Cooling capacity | 400 W @ 25 ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ | Air volume flow rate | 65 L/min |

Coolant volume flow rate | 240 L/h | Air pressure | 400 mbar |

Coolant pressure | 320 mbar | Excess air | 1.50–4.00 |

Parameter | Description |
---|---|

Switching frequency | 20 KHz |

Schottky diode | 2MURF1560 GT, 0.4 V, 10 A, 600 V, 15 A/150 ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ |

Capacitances | 2TK Series, ${C}_{1}$ = 1500 $\mathsf{\mu}$$\mathrm{F}$ and ${C}_{2}$ = 3000 $\mathsf{\mu}$$\mathrm{F}$ |

Inductance | 6PCV2-564-08 94 $\mathsf{\mu}$H, 7 A, 42 m$\mathsf{\Omega}$ |

IGBT | 1HGT40N60B3, 600 V, 40 A, 1.5 V, 150 ${}^{\circ}\mathrm{C}$ |

Maximum input values | ${V}_{in}max$ = 60 V, ${I}_{in}max$ = 30 A |

Maximum output values | ${V}_{out}max$ = 250 V, ${I}_{out}max$ = 30 A |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Derbeli, M.; Barambones, O.; Silaa, M.Y.; Napole, C.
Real-Time Implementation of a New MPPT Control Method for a DC-DC Boost Converter Used in a PEM Fuel Cell Power System. *Actuators* **2020**, *9*, 105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/act9040105

**AMA Style**

Derbeli M, Barambones O, Silaa MY, Napole C.
Real-Time Implementation of a New MPPT Control Method for a DC-DC Boost Converter Used in a PEM Fuel Cell Power System. *Actuators*. 2020; 9(4):105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/act9040105

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Derbeli, Mohamed, Oscar Barambones, Mohammed Yousri Silaa, and Cristian Napole.
2020. "Real-Time Implementation of a New MPPT Control Method for a DC-DC Boost Converter Used in a PEM Fuel Cell Power System" *Actuators* 9, no. 4: 105.
https://doi.org/10.3390/act9040105