- freely available
Actuators 2018, 7(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/act7040088
- the development and integration of dedicated noise and vibration control strategies (f.i., embedded piezoelectric-based solutions developed by Bein et al. in the abovementioned CO2NTROL project , piezo shunted resonators assessed by Liao and Sodano  or Ciminello et al. , SMA-based architectures for dynamic structural response modulation introduced by Ameduri et al. ).
2. Seal Adhesion Problem and System Specifications
- Seals gap should not exceed 1.0 mm (by engineering specs, derived from design constraints); in turn, as aerodynamic action is considered, this constraint implies the gap to be retrieved is lower than 2 mm;
- the main interest zone, as usual for this kind of problems, was at the forward top corner edge of the two front doors, Figure 2;
- to be appreciable, SPL abatement should be higher than 3 dB over the frequency band of interest;
- the temperature operational range should be considered between −50 °C and +80 °C;
- the proposed system should be designed to be turned on during high-speed cruise segments only; its full activation should be completed within 1 s;
- the electrical and thermal insulation should be ensured between the SMA system and the relaxed seal; and
- the power consumption should not exceed 5 W per door, according to standards for such kinds of additional systems, commonly adopted on the car class herein considered.
3. Concept, Integration, and Working Phases
- A shell-like mechanical structure (“the cell”): A device that hosted a longitudinal SMA active element inside, converting its axial action into transversal displacements with the effect of pushing the seal against the door and its frame. Such a component, which was slender ellipsoid shaped, was deployed within the seal, taking advantage of its natural cavity;
- the SMA actuator, a pre-stressed wire, linked to the cell axial extremities and equilibrated by its elastic reaction. When heated by using the Joule effect, the wire shrunk (strain recovery) and compressed the cell longitudinally, inducing in turn a transversal expansion (something similar to the Poisson’s effect); and
- mechanical, thermal, and electrical interfaces: They assured effective mechanical transmission between the wire and the cell, provided a thermal shield between the SMA hot surface, and the cell and the seal rubber, respectively, and limited electrical dispersions.
4. System Design
- Assuring full integrability within the hollowed seal, in both on and off states;
- guaranteeing an extended contact area with the seal to maximize interactions and distribute the load uniformly;
- establishing a sufficient length to reduce interaction losses and minimize side effects at the connection with the SMA-wire; and
- keeping the stress and strain levels under certain thresholds to mitigate fatigue problems.
4.1. Cell Modelling and Sizing
- ; (clamped at one edge);
- ; (inflection point—curvature inversion at a quarter of the total length, L).
4.2. SMA Wire Modelling and Cell System Integration
5. Prototyping and Validation
- Cronos PL8 acquisition system, handling strain gages, linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and load sensors;
- a mechanical press to apply axial loads to the cell system;
- a single Vishay Micro-Measurements EP-08-125BT strain gage;
- an LVDT sensor, for measuring cell axial displacements (compression); and
- a load cell, to record actual longitudinal load, arisen by the press action.
6. Installation and Acoustic Tests
7. Conclusions and Further Steps
Conflicts of Interest
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|Length (mm)||Transversal Size (mm)||Number of Arms||Arms Thickness (Average Value, mm)||Arms Width (Average Value, mm)||Elements||Nodes||Young’s Modulus (GPa)||Poisson’s Ratio (-)|
|Wire Length (mm)||Diameter (mm)||Young’s Modulus (GPa)||Poisson’s Ratio (-)||Transformation Temperatures (°C)||Maximum Recoverable Strain (%)|
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