In this paper, the author presents the adaptive control design and stability analysis of robotic manipulators based on two main approaches, i.e., Lyapunov stability theory and hyperstability theory. For the Lyapunov approach, the author presents the adaptive control of a 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) robotic manipulator. Furthermore, the adaptive control technique and Lyapunov theory are subsequently applied to the end-effector motion control and force control, as in most cases, one only considers the motion control (e.g., position control, trajectory tracking). To make the robot interact with humans or the environment, force control must be considered as well to achieve a safe working environment. For the hyperstability approach, a control system is developed through integrating a PID (proportional–integral–derivative) control system and a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) system, and also the convergent behavior and characteristics under the situation of the PID system, model reference adaptive control system, and PID+MRAC control system are compared.
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