Looking at new trends in global policies, electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to increasingly replace gasoline vehicles in the near future. For current electric vehicles, the motor current driving system and the braking control system are two independent issues with separate design. If a self-induced back-EMF voltage from the motor is a short circuit, then short-circuiting the motor will result in braking. The higher the speed of the motor, the stronger the braking effect. However, the effect is deficient quickly once the motor speed drops quickly. Traditional kinetic brake (i.e., in the short circuit is replaced by a resistor) and dynamic brake (the short circuit brake is replaced by a capacitor) rely on the back EMF alone to generate braking toque. The braking torque generated is usually not enough to effectively stop a rotating motor in a short period of time. In this research task, an integrated driving and braking control system is considered for EVs with an active regenerative braking control system where back electromagnetic field (EMF), controlled by the pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique, is used to charge a pump capacitor. The capacitor is used as an extra energy source cascaded with the battery as a charge pump. This is used to boost braking torque to stop the rotating motor in an efficient way while braking. Experiments are conducted to verify the proposed design. Compared to the traditional kinetic brake and dynamic brake, the proposed active regenerative control system shows better braking performance in terms of stopping time and stopping distance.
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