Next Article in Journal
Brainstem Encephalitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of the Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter jejuni, C. upsaliensis and C. helveticus and Limitations of Using Larvae of Galleria mellonella as an Infection Model
Review

Human Mucosal IgA Immune Responses against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

by 1,2, 3,4 and 1,5,*
1
Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Jonas Lies veg 87, N-5021 Bergen, Norway
2
Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
3
Centre for Intervention Science in Maternal and Child Health, Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
4
Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
5
Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Tropical Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(9), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090714
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 11 August 2020 / Accepted: 24 August 2020 / Published: 29 August 2020
Infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major contributor to diarrheal illness in children in low- and middle-income countries and travelers to these areas. There is an ongoing effort to develop vaccines against ETEC, and the most reliable immune correlate of protection against ETEC is considered to be the small intestinal secretory IgA response that targets ETEC-specific virulence factors. Since isolating IgA from small intestinal mucosa is technically and ethically challenging, requiring the use of invasive medical procedures, several other indirect methods are used as a proxy for gauging the small intestinal IgA responses. In this review, we summarize the literature reporting on anti-ETEC human IgA responses observed in blood, activated lymphocyte assayss, intestinal lavage/duodenal aspirates, and saliva from human volunteers being experimentally infected with ETEC. We describe the IgA response kinetics and responder ratios against classical and noncanonical ETEC antigens in the different sample types and discuss the implications that the results may have on vaccine development and testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: ETEC; mucosal; immunity; experimental infection; IgA; SIgA ETEC; mucosal; immunity; experimental infection; IgA; SIgA
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Riaz, S.; Steinsland, H.; Hanevik, K. Human Mucosal IgA Immune Responses against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogens 2020, 9, 714. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090714

AMA Style

Riaz S, Steinsland H, Hanevik K. Human Mucosal IgA Immune Responses against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Pathogens. 2020; 9(9):714. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090714

Chicago/Turabian Style

Riaz, Saman, Hans Steinsland, and Kurt Hanevik. 2020. "Human Mucosal IgA Immune Responses against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli" Pathogens 9, no. 9: 714. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090714

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop