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Molecular Epidemiology Reveals Low Genetic Diversity among Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates from People Living with HIV in Lima, Peru, during the Pre-HAART Era

1
Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Westmead Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, Research and Education Network-Westmead Hospital, Westmead Institute for Medical Research, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia
2
Unidad de Genόmica, Laboratorios de Investigaciόn y Desarrollo, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
3
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
4
Studies in Translational Microbiology and Emerging Diseases (MICROS) Research Group, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogota 111221, Colombia
5
Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili. Hospital Universitari Joan XXIII, 43005 Tarragona, Spain
6
Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080665
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 14 August 2020 / Accepted: 15 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
Cryptococcosis, a mycosis presenting mostly as meningoencephalitis, affecting predominantly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. The genetic variation of 48 C. neoformans isolates, recovered from 20 HIV-positive people in Lima, Peru, during the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, was studied retrospectively. The mating type of the isolates was determined by PCR, and the serotype by agglutination and CAP59-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Genetic diversity was assessed by URA5-RFLP, PCR-fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). All isolates were mating type alpha, with 39 molecular type VNI, seven VNII, corresponding to C. neoformans var. grubii serotype A, and two VNIII AD hybrids. Overall, the cryptococcal population from HIV-positive people in Lima shows a low degree of genetic diversity. In most patients with persistent cryptococcal infection, the same genotype was recovered during the follow-up. In four patients with relapse and one with therapy failure, different genotypes were found in isolates from the re-infection and from the isolate recovered at the end of the treatment. In one patient, two genotypes were found in the first cryptococcosis episode. This study contributes data from Peru to the ongoing worldwide population genetic analysis of Cryptococcus. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans; HIV positive patients; Peru; genotyping; MLST Cryptococcus neoformans; HIV positive patients; Peru; genotyping; MLST
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van de Wiele, N.; Neyra, E.; Firacative, C.; Gilgado, F.; Serena, C.; Bustamante, B.; Meyer, W. Molecular Epidemiology Reveals Low Genetic Diversity among Cryptococcus neoformans Isolates from People Living with HIV in Lima, Peru, during the Pre-HAART Era. Pathogens 2020, 9, 665.

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