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Insecticidal Activity of Bacteria from Larvae Breeding Site with Natural Larvae Mortality: Screening of Separated Supernatant and Pellet Fractions

1
IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI, Aix Marseille University, 13005 Marseille, France
2
IHU-Méditerranée Infection, 13005 Marseille, France
3
IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, Aix Marseille University, 13005 Marseille, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060486
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
Mosquitoes can transmit to humans devastating and deadly pathogens. As many chemical insecticides are banned due to environmental side effects or are of reduced efficacy due to resistance, biological control, including the use of bacterial strains with insecticidal activity, is of increasing interest and importance. The urgent actual need relies on the discovery of new compounds, preferably of a biological nature. Here, we explored the phenomenon of natural larvae mortality in larval breeding sites to identify potential novel compounds that may be used in biological control. From there, we isolated 14 bacterial strains of the phylum Firmicutes, most of the order Bacillales. Cultures were carried out under controlled conditions and were separated on supernatant and pellet fractions. The two fractions and a 1:1 mixture of the two fractions were tested on L3 and early L4 Aedes albopictus. Two concentrations were tested (2 and 6 mg/L). Larvae mortality was recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h and compared to that induced by the commercialized B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Of the 14 strains isolated, 11 were active against the A. albopictus larvae: 10 of the supernatant fractions and one pellet fraction, and mortality increased with the concentration. For the insecticide activity prediction in three strains of the Bacillus cereus complex, PCR screening of the crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) protein families characteristic to B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis was performed. Most of the genes coding for these proteins’ synthesis were not detected. We identified bacterial strains that exhibit higher insecticidal activity compared with a commercial product. Further studies are needed for the characterization of active compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: mosquito-borne disease; bacteria; biological control; insecticidal activity; bacteria secondary metabolites; Bacillus mosquito-borne disease; bacteria; biological control; insecticidal activity; bacteria secondary metabolites; Bacillus
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Dahmana, H.; Raoult, D.; Fenollar, F.; Mediannikov, O. Insecticidal Activity of Bacteria from Larvae Breeding Site with Natural Larvae Mortality: Screening of Separated Supernatant and Pellet Fractions. Pathogens 2020, 9, 486.

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