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Engineering of Live Chimeric Vaccines against Human Metapneumovirus
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Prospects of and Barriers to the Development of Epitope-Based Vaccines against Human Metapneumovirus

Department of Virology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Saint Petersburg 197376, Russia
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Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060481
Received: 7 May 2020 / Revised: 10 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Metapneumovirus Infection)
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major cause of respiratory illnesses in children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Although this pathogen was only discovered in 2001, an enormous amount of research has been conducted in order to develop safe and effective vaccines to prevent people from contracting the disease. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the most promising experimental B- and T-cell epitopes of human metapneumovirus for the rational design of HMPV vaccines using vector delivery systems, paying special attention to the conservation of these epitopes among different lineages/genotypes of HMPV. The prospects of the successful development of an epitope-based HMPV vaccine are discussed in the context of recent findings regarding HMPV’s ability to modulate host immunity. In particular, we discuss the lack of data on experimental human CD4 T-cell epitopes for HMPV despite the role of CD4 lymphocytes in both the induction of higher neutralizing antibody titers and the establishment of CD8 memory T-cell responses. We conclude that current research should be focused on searching for human CD4 T-cell epitopes of HMPV that can help us to design a safe and cross-protective epitope-based HMPV vaccine. View Full-Text
Keywords: human metapneumovirus; HMPV vaccine; impaired immune responses; epitope-based vaccines; viral vectors; conserved HMPV epitopes; memory T cells human metapneumovirus; HMPV vaccine; impaired immune responses; epitope-based vaccines; viral vectors; conserved HMPV epitopes; memory T cells
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Stepanova, E.; Matyushenko, V.; Rudenko, L.; Isakova-Sivak, I. Prospects of and Barriers to the Development of Epitope-Based Vaccines against Human Metapneumovirus. Pathogens 2020, 9, 481.

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