Next Article in Journal
Long-Term Determinants of Tuberculosis in the Ungulate Host Community of Doñana National Park
Next Article in Special Issue
The Molecular Epidemiology of Echinococcus Infections
Previous Article in Journal
Seneca Valley Virus 3Cpro Cleaves PABPC1 to Promote Viral Replication
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genotyping Echinococcus multilocularis in Human Alveolar Echinococcosis Patients: An EmsB Microsatellite Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Microsatellite Investigations of Multiple Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto Cysts in Single Hosts Reveal Different Patterns of Infection Events between Livestock and Humans

1
Laboratory of Medical and Molecular Parasitology-Mycology (LP3M), LR12ES08, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Monastir, Monastir 5000, Tunisia
2
Anses LRFSN, Wildlife Surveillance and Eco-Epidemiology Unit, National Reference Laboratory for Echinococcus spp., 54220 Malzéville, France
3
Paediatric Surgery Department, F. Bourguiba Hospital, Monastir, Medical School, Monastir 5000, Tunisia
4
Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, EPS F. Bourguiba, Monastir 5000, Tunisia
5
Chrono-Environnement UMR 6249 Research Team, CNRS-University of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, 25030 Besançon, France
6
Medical Biology Department, and French National Reference Centre for Echinococcosis, University Hospital of Besançon, 25030 Besançon, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060444
Received: 15 May 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcus)
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a worldwide zoonosis and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the most common species associated with animal and human diseases. The objective of this study was to obtain a better understanding of CE infection in livestock and humans from very low and high endemic areas—France and Tunisia—by studying the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. at the intra-individual host level. This genetic diversity was studied using EgSca6 and EgSca11 microsatellite profiles in 93 sheep from France and Tunisia, and in 12 cattle and 31 children from Tunisia only, all presenting multiple CE cysts (2 to 10 cysts). Overall, 96% of sheep, 92% of cattle, and 48% of children had at least two cysts with different microsatellite profiles. Inversely, 35% of sheep, 17% of cattle, and 65% of children had at least two cysts with the same microsatellite profile. The genotyping results for the CE samples highlight high and similar genetic diversity in France and Tunisia, suggesting that the probability of being successively infected by CE of the same microsatellite profile was rare in both countries. Therefore, our results suggest that in rare cases, several eggs of the same microsatellite profile, from two to seven in our data, can be ingested simultaneously in a single infection event and develop into several cysts in livestock and children. They also indicate that multiple infection events are frequent in livestock, even in a low endemic country such as France, and are less frequent but not negligible in children in a high endemic country such as Tunisia. Moreover, this is the first time that genetic evidence of secondary CE has been found. Further studies are needed to better assess the pattern of infection events in livestock and humans, especially by studying the genetic diversity of adult worms in definitive hosts. View Full-Text
Keywords: cystic echinococcosis; Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto; microsatellite; intra-individual genetic diversity; infection event; recurrence cystic echinococcosis; Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto; microsatellite; intra-individual genetic diversity; infection event; recurrence
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

M’rad, S.; Oudni-M’rad, M.; Bastid, V.; Bournez, L.; Mosbahi, S.; Nouri, A.; Babba, H.; Grenouillet, F.; Boué, F.; Umhang, G. Microsatellite Investigations of Multiple Echinococcus granulosus Sensu Stricto Cysts in Single Hosts Reveal Different Patterns of Infection Events between Livestock and Humans. Pathogens 2020, 9, 444.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop