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Open AccessArticle

The Examination of Viral Characteristics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC and Its Potential Interaction with Extracellular Galectin-3

1
Center for Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
2
Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
3
Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical, University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Model Development Section, Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 20892, USA
5
Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Pathogens 2020, 9(6), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060425
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Interactions during Infection)
HIV-1 CRF07_BC is a B’ and C subtype recombinant emerging virus and many of its viral characteristics remain unclear. Galectin-3 (Gal3) is a β-galactose binding lectin that has been reported as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and is known to mediate adhesion between cells and microbes. This study aims to examine the viral characteristics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC virus and the role of extracellular galectin-3 in HIV-1 CRF07_BC infection. A total of 28 HIV-1+ injecting drug users (IDUs) were recruited and 24 (85.7%) were identified as HIV-1 CRF07_BC. Results indicate that significant higher serum galectin-3 was measured in CRF07_BC infected patients and CRF07_BC infection triggered significant galectin-3 expression (p < 0.01). Viral characteristics demonstrate that CRF07_BC virions display a higher level of envelope gp120 spikes. The virus infectivity assay demonstrated that co-treatment with galectin-3 significantly promoted CRF07_BC attachment and internalization (p < 0.01). A co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that pulldown galectin-3 co-precipitated both CD4 and gp120 proteins. Results from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicate that the galectin-3 promoting effect occurs through enhancement of the interaction between gp120 and CD4. This study suggests that CRF07_BC was predominant in HIV-1+ IDUs and CRF07_BC utilized extracellular galectin-3 to enhance its infectivity via stabilization of the gp120-CD4 interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Galectin-3; HIV-1; CRF07_BC; envelope; gp120; CD4 Galectin-3; HIV-1; CRF07_BC; envelope; gp120; CD4
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Lin, C.-Y.; Wang, W.-H.; Huang, S.-W.; Yeh, C.-S.; Yuan, R.-Y.; Yang, Z.-S.; Urbina, A.N.; Tseng, S.-P.; Lu, P.-L.; Chen, Y.-H.; Wang, S.-F. The Examination of Viral Characteristics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC and Its Potential Interaction with Extracellular Galectin-3. Pathogens 2020, 9, 425.

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