Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has been commonly detected in tropical countries. The clinical manifestations of CHIKV infection are similar to those of rheumatoid arthritis. Outbreaks of CHIKV infection in Thailand have been reported, and the inductions of various cytokines and chemokines in CHIKV patients during those outbreaks have been shown. Although immune responses in CHIKV infection have been increasingly reported, the mechanisms associated with pathology induction are still not clearly understood. This review focuses on cytokine and chemokine production in CHIKV infection, in association with the severity of joint inflammation. Several cytokines and chemokines involved in the induction or regulation of inflammatory responses were shown to associate with the severe and persistent symptoms in CHIKV infection. Further studies on the difference in immune responses observed in an autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, infectious disease, and CHIKV infection, would provide additional insights useful for proper CHIKV therapy, especially in patients with severe joint pains.
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