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The COVID-19 Pandemic during the Time of the Diabetes Pandemic: Likely Fraternal Twins?

1
Population Health Program, Texas Biomedical Research Institute and Southwest National Primate Research Center (SNPRC), San Antonio, TX 78227-0549, USA
2
Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Marista de Mérida, Mérida 97300, Mexico
3
Centro de Investigación en Ciencias de la Salud (CICSA), Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Anáhuac Norte, Naucalpan de Juárez 52786, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050389
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 16 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
An altered immune response to pathogens has been suggested to explain increased susceptibility to infectious diseases in patients with diabetes. Recent evidence has documented several immunometabolic pathways in patients with diabetes directly related to the COVID-19 infection. This also seems to be the case for prediabetic subjects with proinflammatory insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with prothrombotic hyperinsulinemic and dysglycemic states. Patients with frank hyperglycemia, dysglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia develop systemic immunometabolic inflammation with higher levels of circulating cytokines. This deleterious scenario has been proposed as the underlying mechanism enhancing a cytokine storm-like hyperinflammatory state in diabetics infected with severe COVID-19 triggering multi-organ failure. Compared with moderately affected COVID-19 patients, diabetes was found to be highly prevalent among severely affected patients suggesting that this non-communicable disease should be considered as a risk factor for adverse outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic mirrors with the diabetes pandemic in many pathobiological aspects. Our interest is to emphasize the ties between the immunoinflammatory mechanisms that underlie the morbidity and lethality when COVID-19 meets diabetes. This review brings attention to two pathologies of highly complex, multifactorial, developmental and environmentally dependent manifestations of critical importance to human survival. Extreme caution should be taken with diabetics with suspected symptoms of COVID-19 infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; diabetes; inflammation; adipose tissue dysfunction; cytokine storm; GEMM family study COVID-19; diabetes; inflammation; adipose tissue dysfunction; cytokine storm; GEMM family study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cole, S.A.; Laviada-Molina, H.A.; Serres-Perales, J.M.; Rodriguez-Ayala, E.; Bastarrachea, R.A. The COVID-19 Pandemic during the Time of the Diabetes Pandemic: Likely Fraternal Twins? Pathogens 2020, 9, 389.

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