has been identified as a potential military and bioterror agent as it is relatively simple to produce, with spores that are highly resilient to degradation in the environment and easily dispersed. These characteristics are important in describing how anthrax could be used as a weapon, but they are also important in understanding and determining appropriate prevention and treatment of anthrax disease. Today, anthrax disease is primarily enzootic and found mostly in the developing world, where it is still associated with considerable mortality and morbidity in humans and livestock. This review article describes the spectrum of disease caused by anthrax and the various prevention and treatment options. Specifically we discuss the following; (1) clinical manifestations of anthrax disease (cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational and intravenous-associated); (2) immunology of the disease; (3) an overview of animal models used in research; (4) the current World Health Organization and U.S. Government guidelines for investigation, management, and prophylaxis; (5) unique regulatory approaches to licensure and approval of anthrax medical countermeasures; (6) the history of vaccination and pre-exposure prophylaxis; (7) post-exposure prophylaxis and disease management; (8) treatment of symptomatic disease through the use of antibiotics and hyperimmune or monoclonal antibody-based antitoxin therapies; and (9) the current landscape of next-generation product candidates under development.
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