Characterizing Peri-Implant and Sub-Gingival Microbiota through Culturomics. First Isolation of Some Species in the Oral Cavity. A Pilot Study
Private Practice, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Laboratory and Infectious Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Head, Neck and Sense Organs, Division of Oral Surgery and Implantology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Basic Biotechnological Sciences, Intensive and Perioperative Clinics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Head, Neck and Sense Organs, Division of General Dentistry and Orthodontics, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, School of Dentistry, 00168 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally as co-first authors.
The authors contributed equally as co-last authors.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050365
Received: 10 April 2020 / Revised: 7 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 10 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Diagnostic and Treatment Techniques of Oral Microbiota)
Background: In recent years, culture-independent molecular techniques have been developed to investigate microbiota considered uncultivable. However, the data in the literature suggest that molecular techniques and cultural methods target different spectra of bacteria. The objective of this pilot study was to search for not yet identified oral species in the peri-implant and sub-gingival microbiota in patients without signs of oral pathologies, through the use of the culturomics approach, which has never been used before in dentistry. Methods: Four patients were enrolled; from each patient, samples of sub-gingival and peri-implant plaque were taken and analysed by culturomics. Results: Of 48 isolated species, only 30 had been previously identified by metagenomics in other studies; on the contrary, 12 species had never been associated with the oral cavity before, and 5 of them had never been isolated from clinical specimens. Conclusions: By adopting culturomics in dentistry, it could be possible to identify a large amount of fastidious microorganisms that inhabit the oral cavity and to more accurately characterize the microorganisms that lead to periodontitis and peri-implantitis. This evidence could represent an important step forward for the diagnosis and treatment of peri-implantitis, as well as a very useful means for the characterization of new potential aetiologic agents.