Next Article in Journal
Monitoring of Pseudorabies in Wild Boar of Germany—A Spatiotemporal Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Protective Properties of Attenuated Strains of African Swine Fever Virus Belonging to Seroimmunotypes I–VIII
Open AccessReview

Anthology of Dirofilariasis in Russia (1915–2017)

Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector-Borne Diseases, Sechenov University, 119435 Moscow, Russia
Department of Tropical, Parasitic Diseases and Disinfectology, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, 125445 Moscow, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 275;
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
Dirofilariasis is a helminths vector-borne disease caused by two species of DirofolariaD. repens and D. immitis. The former is overwhelmingly associated with human dirofilariasis. The vector of the worm are mosquitoes of the family Culicidae (largely Culex, Aedes and Anopheles). The definitive hosts of Dirofilaria are dogs and to a lesser extent cats. Humans are an accidental host. A total of 1200 human cases caused by Dirofilaria were registered in the territory of the ex-USSR during the period 1915–2016. Zonal differences have been seen in the prevalence of infected dogs and mosquitoes. Studies undertaken in the southern part of the Russian Federation (RF) revealed the prevalence of Dirofilaria in dogs to be 20.8% with wild variations of larva density. Studies carried out in the central part of the RF found that the prevalence of parasites in dogs was 4.1%. Aedes mosquitoes were infected less than Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes. The latter were infected by D. repens more often than Culex and Aedes. Zonal differences were also traced in regard to Dirofilaria prevalence in humans, thus allowing identification of three zones of risk of infection (low, moderate, and stable), reflected in a series of constructed maps. Although Dirofilariasis was known on the territory of Russia from 1915, only sporadic cases of the disease were reported occasionally. Its number was showed an increasing trend only during the 1980s–1990s, reaching the level of hundreds of cases. The majority of cases were confined to the southern parts of Russia with geographic coordinates of 43°–45° on the northern latitude. Comparison of the timing of the global trend of climate warming during the 1990s with the temporal pattern of Dirofilaria on the territory of Russia during the same period demonstrated a close association between two phenomena. With the continuous process of global climate warming, the incidence of dirofilariasis both in man and dogs goes unabated exemplified by the territorial expansion of the disease northwards and eastwards attaining the latitude of 56°–57° on the northern latitude in the European and Asian parts of Russia. It appears that within the period of the last 20–25 years, the population at risk has doubled. Under these circumstances, dirofilariases in Russia should be considered as an emerging public health problem necessitating the establishment of a comprehensive epidemiological monitoring system with strong entomological and veterinary components. Based on the results obtained, an appropriate control intervention could be developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dirofilaria; dirofilariasis; subcutaneous nodule; D. repens; D. immitis; vectors; transmission Dirofilaria; dirofilariasis; subcutaneous nodule; D. repens; D. immitis; vectors; transmission
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kondrashin, A.V.; Morozova, L.F.; Stepanova, E.V.; Turbabina, N.A.; Maksimova, M.S.; Morozov, E.N. Anthology of Dirofilariasis in Russia (1915–2017). Pathogens 2020, 9, 275.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop