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Free to Circulate: An Update on the Epidemiological Dynamics of Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV-2) in Italy Reveals the Role of Local Spreading, Wild Populations, and Foreign Countries

Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padua, 35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Maria Luisa Menandro and Michele Drigo contributed equally.
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030221
Received: 15 February 2020 / Revised: 11 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Circovirus Infections)
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is one of the most impactful and widespread pathogens of the modern swine industry. Unlike other DNA viruses, PCV-2 is featured by a remarkable genetic variability, which has led to the emergence and recognition of different genotypes, some of which (PCV-2a, 2b, and 2d) have alternated over time. Currently, PCV-2d is considered the most prevalent genotype, and some evidence of differential virulence and vaccine efficacy have been reported. Despite the potential practical relevance, the data on PCV-2 epidemiology in Italy are quite outdated and do not quantify the actual circulation of this genotype in Italy. In the present study, 82 complete ORF2 sequences were obtained from domestic pigs and wild boars sampled in Northern Italy in the period 2013–2018 and merged with those previously obtained from Italy and other countries. A combination of phylogenetic, haplotype network, and phylodynamic analyses were used to genotype the collected strains and evaluate the temporal trend and the spatial and host spread dynamics. A rising number of PCV-2d detections was observed in domestic pigs, particularly since 2013, reaching a detection frequency comparable to PCV-2b. A similar picture was observed in wild boars, although a lower sequence number was available. Overall, the present study demonstrates the extreme complexity of PCV-2 molecular epidemiology in Italy, the significant spread across different regions, the recurrent introduction from foreign countries, and the frequent occurrence of recombination events. Although a higher viral flux occurred from domestic to wild populations than vice versa, wild boars seem to maintain PCV-2 infection and spread it over relatively long distances. View Full-Text
Keywords: PCV-2; Italy; genotyping; domestic pig; wild boars; molecular epidemiology PCV-2; Italy; genotyping; domestic pig; wild boars; molecular epidemiology
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    Description: Supplementary figure 1) Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a broad collection of PCV-2 ORF2 sequences collected worldwide. The Italian wild boar strains analyzed in the present study are highlighted in red. It is possible to zoom in to appreciate further details and tip labels.
MDPI and ACS Style

Franzo, G.; Tinello, S.; Grassi, L.; Tucciarone, C.M.; Legnardi, M.; Cecchinato, M.; Dotto, G.; Mondin, A.; Martini, M.; Pasotto, D.; Menandro, M.L.; Drigo, M. Free to Circulate: An Update on the Epidemiological Dynamics of Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV-2) in Italy Reveals the Role of Local Spreading, Wild Populations, and Foreign Countries. Pathogens 2020, 9, 221. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030221

AMA Style

Franzo G, Tinello S, Grassi L, Tucciarone CM, Legnardi M, Cecchinato M, Dotto G, Mondin A, Martini M, Pasotto D, Menandro ML, Drigo M. Free to Circulate: An Update on the Epidemiological Dynamics of Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV-2) in Italy Reveals the Role of Local Spreading, Wild Populations, and Foreign Countries. Pathogens. 2020; 9(3):221. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030221

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franzo, Giovanni, Susanna Tinello, Laura Grassi, Claudia M. Tucciarone, Matteo Legnardi, Mattia Cecchinato, Giorgia Dotto, Alessandra Mondin, Marco Martini, Daniela Pasotto, Maria L. Menandro, and Michele Drigo. 2020. "Free to Circulate: An Update on the Epidemiological Dynamics of Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV-2) in Italy Reveals the Role of Local Spreading, Wild Populations, and Foreign Countries" Pathogens 9, no. 3: 221. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030221

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