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Lineage, Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Citrobacter spp

1
State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
2
Shijiazhuang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shijiazhuang 050011, China
3
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food Additives, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
4
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Pathogens 2020, 9(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030195
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 4 March 2020 / Accepted: 4 March 2020 / Published: 6 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
Citrobacter spp. are opportunistic human pathogens which can cause nosocomial infections, sporadic infections and outbreaks. In order to determine the genetic diversity, in vitro virulence properties and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Citrobacter spp., 128 Citrobacter isolates obtained from human diarrheal patients, foods and environment were assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing and adhesion and cytotoxicity testing to HEp-2 cells. The 128 Citrobacter isolates were typed into 123 sequence types (STs) of which 101 were novel STs, and these STs were divided into five lineages. Lineages I and II contained C. freundii isolates; Lineage III contained all C. braakii isolates, while Lineage IV and V contained C. youngae isolates. Lineages II and V contained more adhesive and cytotoxic isolates than Lineages I, III, and IV. Fifty-one of the 128 isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant (MDR, ≥3) and mainly distributed in Lineages I, II, and III. The prevalence of quinolone resistance varied with Lineage III (C. braakii) having the highest proportion of resistant isolates (52.6%), followed by Lineage I (C. freundii) with 23.7%. Seven qnrB variants, including two new alleles (qnrB93 and qnrB94) were found with Lineage I being the main reservoir. In summary, highly cytotoxic MDR isolates from diarrheal patients may increase the risk of severe disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrobacter; sequence types; multidrug resistance; adhesion; cytotoxicity Citrobacter; sequence types; multidrug resistance; adhesion; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, L.; Qin, L.; Hao, S.; Lan, R.; Xu, B.; Guo, Y.; Jiang, R.; Sun, H.; Chen, X.; LV, X.; Xu, J.; Zhao, C. Lineage, Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Citrobacter spp. Pathogens 2020, 9, 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030195

AMA Style

Liu L, Qin L, Hao S, Lan R, Xu B, Guo Y, Jiang R, Sun H, Chen X, LV X, Xu J, Zhao C. Lineage, Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Citrobacter spp. Pathogens. 2020; 9(3):195. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Liyun, Liyun Qin, Shuai Hao, Ruiting Lan, Baohong Xu, Yumei Guo, Ruiping Jiang, Hui Sun, Xiaoping Chen, Xinchao LV, Jianguo Xu, and Chuan Zhao. 2020. "Lineage, Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Citrobacter spp" Pathogens 9, no. 3: 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030195

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