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Characterization of Salmonella Isolates from Wastewater Treatment Plant Influents to Estimate Unreported Cases and Infection Sources of Salmonellosis

1
Department of Microbiology, Yamanashi Institute of Public Health and Environment, 1-7-31 Fujimi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-0027, Japan
2
Environmental and Social System Science Course, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
3
Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010052
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Waterborne/Foodborne/Airborne Pathogens)
Salmonella enterica is a major cause of gastroenteritis usually caused by animal-based contaminated foods. Since the current passive surveillance is not sufficient to detect all infections and infection sources, we determined the prevalence of Salmonella isolated from sewage influent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and compared the characteristics of human and food isolates to identify the infection sources. Sewage influent samples were collected monthly from two WWTPs located in the Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan, for three years. Serotypes, antimicrobial resistances, isolation periods, isolated areas, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of six isolates belonging to five serotypes were consistent with those of the isolates from patients. Real-time PCR for Salmonella indicated that sewage influents reflect cases of patients infected with Salmonella, including unreported cases. Serovars Schwarzengrund and Anatum were predominant in sewage, but not in humans, and their characteristics were closely related or identical to those isolated from poultry heart and liver, respectively. These results suggest that sewage influent contains Salmonella isolates from humans and that some originated from unreported human cases infected by poultry-associated products. Therefore, it is necessary to take countermeasures against Salmonella infection based on the unreported cases, which would be disclosed by analysis of sewage influent. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella enterica; sewage; unreported case; poultry; wastewater treatment plant Salmonella enterica; sewage; unreported case; poultry; wastewater treatment plant
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Yanagimoto, K.; Yamagami, T.; Uematsu, K.; Haramoto, E. Characterization of Salmonella Isolates from Wastewater Treatment Plant Influents to Estimate Unreported Cases and Infection Sources of Salmonellosis. Pathogens 2020, 9, 52.

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