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Open AccessArticle

Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel for Treatment of Schistosoma mansoni Infection among School Children in Tanzania

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam 11103, Tanzania
2
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam 11103, Tanzania
4
National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Mwanza Research Centre, Mwanza 33104, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010028
Received: 5 December 2019 / Revised: 24 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Human Pathogens)
Single-dose targeted praziquantel preventive chemotherapy is the WHO-recommended intervention for schistosomiasis control in endemic countries. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of single-dose praziquantel among Schistosoma mansoni-infected children in north-western Tanzania. A prospective safety and efficacy surveillance study was conducted among 341 school-going children treated with a single-dose praziquantel 40 mg/kg body weight. Socio-demographic, pre-treatment, and post-treatment stool examination and safety data were collected. The primary and secondary outcomes were treatment efficacy (parasitological cure and egg reduction rates at three weeks post-treatment) and treatment-related adverse events, respectively. The overall cure rate and egg reduction rate were 81.2% (76.8–85.3%) and 95.0% (92.7–97.3%), respectively. There was no significant association between cure rate and pre-treatment infection intensity. The incidence of treatment-associated adverse events was 28.5% (23.7–33.3%), with abdominal pain being the most common. Post-treatment abdominal pain and vomiting were significantly associated with pre-treatment infection intensity (p < 0.001) and anemia (p = 0.03), respectively. Praziquantel single-dose is still safe and efficacious against Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, the lack of cure in about one-fifth and adverse events in a quarter, of the infected children indicate the need for close praziquantel safety monitoring and treatment optimization research to improve efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: intestinal schistosomiasis; praziquantel; single-dose; efficacy; safety; Tanzania intestinal schistosomiasis; praziquantel; single-dose; efficacy; safety; Tanzania
MDPI and ACS Style

Mnkugwe, R.H.; Minzi, O.S.; Kinung’hi, S.M.; Kamuhabwa, A.A.; Aklillu, E. Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel for Treatment of Schistosoma mansoni Infection among School Children in Tanzania. Pathogens 2020, 9, 28.

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