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Open AccessArticle

Adverse Effects of Classical Swine Fever Virus LOM Vaccine and Jeju LOM Strains in Pregnant Sows and Specific Pathogen-Free Pigs

1
Viral Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA), Gimcheon, Gyeongbuk 39660, Korea
2
College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
3
Jeju Special Self-Governing Provincial Veterinary Research Institute, Jeju 63344, Korea
4
College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally.
Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010018
Received: 2 December 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 22 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classical Swine Fever)
In Jeju island of South Korea, a classical swine fever (CSF) non-vaccinated region, many pig farmers insisted on abortion and stillbirth in pregnant sows and high mortality of suckling/weaning piglets by circulating CSF virus from 2014 to 2018. We investigated whether CSF viruses isolated from pigs in Jeju Island (Jeju LOM) have recovered their pathogenicity by conducting experiments using pregnant sows and specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs. The CSF modified live LOM vaccine (MLV-LOM) and Jeju LOM strains induced abortion and stillbirth in pregnant sows. Viral antigens were detected in the organs of fetuses and stillborn piglets in the absence of specific pathological lesions associated with the virulent CSF virus in both groups (MLV-LOM and Jeju LOM strain). However, antigen was detected in one newborn piglet from a sow inoculated with a Jeju LOM strain, suggesting that it may cause persistent infections in pigs. SPF pigs inoculated with the MLV-LOM or Jeju LOM strains were asymptomatic, but virus antigen was detected in several organ and blood samples. Virus shedding in both groups of animals was not detected in the feces or saliva until 21 days post inoculation. The serum concentration of the three major cytokines, IFN-α, TNF-α, and IL-10, known to be related to lymphocytopenia, were similar in both groups when the MLV-LOM or Jeju LOM strains were inoculated into SPF pigs. In conclusion, Jeju LOM strains exhibited most of the characteristics of the MLV-LOM in pigs and resulted in the same adverse effects as the MLV-LOM strain. View Full-Text
Keywords: CSFV; pathogenicity; MLV-LOM; SPF pig; Jeju LOM strain CSFV; pathogenicity; MLV-LOM; SPF pig; Jeju LOM strain
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Choe, S.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, K.-S.; Song, S.; Cha, R.M.; Kang, W.-C.; Kim, H.-J.; Park, G.-N.; Shin, J.; Jo, H.-N.; Cho, I.-S.; Hyun, B.-H.; Park, B.-K.; An, D.-J. Adverse Effects of Classical Swine Fever Virus LOM Vaccine and Jeju LOM Strains in Pregnant Sows and Specific Pathogen-Free Pigs. Pathogens 2020, 9, 18.

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