Avian Group D Rotaviruses: Structure, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Perspectives on Future Research Challenges
Division of Biological Standardization, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India
Department of Biomedical Sciences, One Health Center for Zoonoses and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, P. O. Box 334, Basseterre, St. Kitts, West Indies
Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungáriakrt. 21, Budapest 1143, Hungary
Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2017, 6(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens6040053
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rotavirus Epidemiology: Host, Climate and Vaccine Influences)
In 1981, a new virus (virus 132) was described for the first time with morphological and biochemical similarities to rotaviruses (RVs), but without antigenic similarity to any of the previously known rotavirus groups. Subsequently, it was re-designated as D/132, and formed a new serogroup among rotaviruses, the group D rotavirus (RVD). Since their identification, RVs are the leading cause of enteritis and diarrhea in humans and various animal species, and are also associated with abridged growth, particularly in avian species. Recently, RVD has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), alongside other viruses such as reovirus, astrovirus, coronavirus, and others, all of which cause colossal economic losses to the poultry industry. RVD has been reported from several countries worldwide, and to date, only one complete genome sequence for RVD is available. Neither an immunodiagnostic nor a vaccine is available for the detection and prevention of RVD infection. Despite our growing understanding about this particular group, questions remain regarding its exact prevalence and pathogenecity, and the disease-associated annual losses for the poultry industry. Here, we describe the current knowledge about the identification, epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention of RVD in poultry.