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How to Meet the Last OIE Expert Surveillance Panel Recommendations on Equine Influenza (EI) Vaccine Composition: A Review of the Process Required for the Recombinant Canarypox-Based EI Vaccine

Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford Newmarket CB8 7UU, UK
Irish Equine Centre, Johnstown, Naas, W91 RH93 Co. Kildare, Ireland
Merial SAS, 69007 Lyon, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Janet Daly
Pathogens 2016, 5(4), 64;
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Influenza)
PDF [2169 KB, uploaded 25 November 2016]


Vaccination is highly effective to prevent, control, and limit the impact of equine influenza (EI), a major respiratory disease of horses. However, EI vaccines should contain relevant equine influenza virus (EIV) strains for optimal protection. The OIE expert surveillance panel annually reviews EIV evolution and, since 2010, the use of Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages representative vaccine strains is recommended. This report summarises the development process of a fully- updated recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine in order to meet the last OIE recommendations, including the vaccine mode of action, production steps and schedule. The EI vaccine ProteqFlu contains 2 recombinant canarypox viruses expressing the haemagglutinin of the A/equine/Ohio/03 and A/equine/Richmond/1/07 isolates (Florida clade 1 and 2 sub-lineages, respectively). The updated EI vaccine was tested for efficacy against the representative Florida clade 2 EIV strain A/equine/Richmond/1/07 in the Welsh mountain pony model. Protective antibody response, clinical signs of disease and virus shedding were compared with unvaccinated control ponies. Significant protection was measured in vaccinated ponies, which supports the vaccine registration. The recombinant canarypox-based EI vaccine was the first fully updated EI vaccine available in the EU, which will help to minimise the increasing risk of vaccine breakdown due to constant EIV evolution through antigenic drift. View Full-Text
Keywords: horse; equine influenza; vaccination; canarypox; update horse; equine influenza; vaccination; canarypox; update

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Paillot, R.; Rash, N.L.; Garrett, D.; Prowse-Davis, L.; Montesso, F.; Cullinane, A.; Lemaitre, L.; Thibault, J.-C.; Wittreck, S.; Dancer, A. How to Meet the Last OIE Expert Surveillance Panel Recommendations on Equine Influenza (EI) Vaccine Composition: A Review of the Process Required for the Recombinant Canarypox-Based EI Vaccine. Pathogens 2016, 5, 64.

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