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Animal Models for Influenza Viruses: Implications for Universal Vaccine Development

1
Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
2
The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2014, 3(4), 845-874; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens3040845
Received: 7 August 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 10 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model to Study Viral Immunity)
Influenza virus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Depending on the virulence of the influenza virus strain, as well as the immunological status of the infected individual, the severity of the respiratory disease may range from sub-clinical or mild symptoms to severe pneumonia that can sometimes lead to death. Vaccines remain the primary public health measure in reducing the influenza burden. Though the first influenza vaccine preparation was licensed more than 60 years ago, current research efforts seek to develop novel vaccination strategies with improved immunogenicity, effectiveness, and breadth of protection. Animal models of influenza have been essential in facilitating studies aimed at understanding viral factors that affect pathogenesis and contribute to disease or transmission. Among others, mice, ferrets, pigs, and nonhuman primates have been used to study influenza virus infection in vivo, as well as to do pre-clinical testing of novel vaccine approaches. Here we discuss and compare the unique advantages and limitations of each model. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza virus; heterosubtypic immunity; influenza animal models; universal influenza virus vaccine influenza virus; heterosubtypic immunity; influenza animal models; universal influenza virus vaccine
MDPI and ACS Style

Margine, I.; Krammer, F. Animal Models for Influenza Viruses: Implications for Universal Vaccine Development. Pathogens 2014, 3, 845-874.

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