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Review

Wastewater Based Epidemiology Perspective as a Faster Protocol for Detecting Coronavirus RNA in Human Populations: A Review with Specific Reference to SARS-CoV-2 Virus

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Student Research Committee, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
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Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
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Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
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Redox Regulation Laboratory, College of Basic Science and Humanities, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751003, India
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Environmental Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Faculty, Ayazağa Campus, İstanbul Technical University, İstanbul 34469, Turkey
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Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, 50132 Kozani, Greece
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Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
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Laboratorio de Electroquímica Medio Ambiental LEQMA, Departamento de Química de los Materiales, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago 9170022, Chile
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Departamento de Ingeniería Química, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato 36050, Mexico
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School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 7011, USA
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Department of Philosophy, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004, India
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Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first author.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Silvia Bonetta
Pathogens 2021, 10(8), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081008
Received: 7 July 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in the Water Environment)
Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has a long history of identifying a variety of viruses from poliovirus to coronaviruses, including novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The presence and detection of SARS-CoV-2 in human feces and its passage into the water bodies are significant public health challenges. Hence, the hot issue of WBE of SARS-CoV-2 in the coronavirus respiratory disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a matter of utmost importance (e.g., SARS-CoV-1). The present review discusses the background, state of the art, actual status, and prospects of WBE, as well as the detection and quantification protocols of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. The SARS-CoV-2 detection studies have been performed in different water matrixes such as influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants, suburban pumping stations, hospital wastewater, and sewer networks around the globe except for Antarctica. The findings revealed that all WBE studies were in accordance with clinical and epidemiological data, which correlates the presence of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) with the number of new daily positive cases officially reported. This last was confirmed via Reverse Transcriptase-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) testing which unfortunately is not suitable for real-time surveillance. In addition, WBE concept may act as a faster protocol to alert the public health authorities to take administrative orders (possible re-emerging infections) due to the impracticality of testing all citizens in a short time with limited diagnostic facilities. A comprehensive and integrated review covering all steps starting from sampling to molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater has been made to guide for the development well-defined and reliable protocols. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater-based epidemiology; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronavirus; detection and quantification protocols wastewater-based epidemiology; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronavirus; detection and quantification protocols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mousazadeh, M.; Ashoori, R.; Paital, B.; Kabdaşlı, I.; Frontistis, Z.; Hashemi, M.; Sandoval, M.A.; Sherchan, S.; Das, K.; Emamjomeh, M.M. Wastewater Based Epidemiology Perspective as a Faster Protocol for Detecting Coronavirus RNA in Human Populations: A Review with Specific Reference to SARS-CoV-2 Virus. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1008. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081008

AMA Style

Mousazadeh M, Ashoori R, Paital B, Kabdaşlı I, Frontistis Z, Hashemi M, Sandoval MA, Sherchan S, Das K, Emamjomeh MM. Wastewater Based Epidemiology Perspective as a Faster Protocol for Detecting Coronavirus RNA in Human Populations: A Review with Specific Reference to SARS-CoV-2 Virus. Pathogens. 2021; 10(8):1008. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mousazadeh, Milad, Razieh Ashoori, Biswaranjan Paital, Işık Kabdaşlı, Zacharias Frontistis, Marjan Hashemi, Miguel A. Sandoval, Samendra Sherchan, Kabita Das, and Mohammad Mahdi Emamjomeh. 2021. "Wastewater Based Epidemiology Perspective as a Faster Protocol for Detecting Coronavirus RNA in Human Populations: A Review with Specific Reference to SARS-CoV-2 Virus" Pathogens 10, no. 8: 1008. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10081008

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