Next Article in Journal
Models for Studying the Distribution of Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis with a Focus on Africa
Previous Article in Journal
A Comparison of Virulence of Three Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Genotypes (a, b, and d) in Pigs Singularly Inoculated with PCV2 and Dually Inoculated with PCV2 and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Article

Tularemia Outbreaks in Spain from 2007 to 2020 in Humans and Domestic and Wild Animals

1
Servicio de Sanidad Animal, Dirección General de Producción Agropecuaria e Infraestructuras Agrarias, Consejería de Agricultura, Ganadería y Desarrollo Rural, Junta de Castilla y León, 47007 Valladolid, Spain
2
Departmento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana s/n, 24007 León, Spain
3
Laboratorio Regional de Sanidad Animal, Consejería de Agricultura, Ganadería y Desarrollo Rural, Junta de Castilla y León, Villaquilambre, 24500 León, Spain
4
Servicio de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Enfermedades Transmisibles, Dirección General de Salud Pública, Consejería de Sanidad, Junta de Castilla y León, 47007 Valladolid, Spain
5
Área de Plagas, Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León (ITACyL), 47009 Valladolid, Spain
6
Laboratorio de Biología Molecular y Microbiología, Instituto Tecnológico Agrario de Castilla y León (ITACyL), 47009 Valladolid, Spain
7
Unidad de Microbiología, Departamento de Biotecnología y Ciencia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias, and Research Centre for Emerging Pathogens and Global Health, Universidad de Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Olivier Sparagano and Lawrence S. Young
Pathogens 2021, 10(7), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070892
Received: 14 May 2021 / Revised: 1 July 2021 / Accepted: 12 July 2021 / Published: 14 July 2021
In this study, tularemia outbreaks associated with humans and several domestic and wild animals (Iberian hares, wild rabbits, voles, mice, grey shrews, sheep, dogs, foxes, wolves, ticks, and river crayfish) are reported in Spain from 2007 to 2020. Special attention was paid to the outbreaks in humans in 2007–2009 and 2014–2015, when the most important waves occurred. Moreover, positive rates of tularemia in lagomorphs were detected in 2007–2010, followed by negative results in 2011–2013, before again returning to positive rates in 2014 and in 2017 and in 2019–2020. Lagomorphs role in spreading Francisella tularensis in the epidemiological chain could not be discarded. F. tularensis is described for the first time infecting the shrew Crocidura russula worldwide, and it is also reported for the first time infecting wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain. Serological positives higher than 0.4% were seen for sheep only from 2007–2009 and again in 2019, while serological rates greater than 1% were revealed in dogs in 2007–2008 and in wild canids in 2016. F. tularensis were detected in ticks in 2009, 2014–2015, 2017, and 2019. Lastly, negative results were achieved for river crayfish and also in environmental water samples from 2007 to 2020. View Full-Text
Keywords: Francisella tularensis; tularemia; lagomorphs; vole; shrew; tick; canids; human; sheep; dog; fox; wolf; crayfish; water Francisella tularensis; tularemia; lagomorphs; vole; shrew; tick; canids; human; sheep; dog; fox; wolf; crayfish; water
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mínguez-González, O.; Gutiérrez-Martín, C.-B.; Martínez-Nistal, M.d.C.; Esquivel-García, M.d.R.; Gómez-Campillo, J.-I.; Collazos-Martínez, J.-Á.; Fernández-Calle, L.-M.; Ruiz-Sopeña, C.; Tamames-Gómez, S.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Caminero-Saldaña, C.; Hernández, M.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, D.; Rodríguez-Ferri, E.-F. Tularemia Outbreaks in Spain from 2007 to 2020 in Humans and Domestic and Wild Animals. Pathogens 2021, 10, 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070892

AMA Style

Mínguez-González O, Gutiérrez-Martín C-B, Martínez-Nistal MdC, Esquivel-García MdR, Gómez-Campillo J-I, Collazos-Martínez J-Á, Fernández-Calle L-M, Ruiz-Sopeña C, Tamames-Gómez S, Martínez-Martínez S, Caminero-Saldaña C, Hernández M, Rodríguez-Lázaro D, Rodríguez-Ferri E-F. Tularemia Outbreaks in Spain from 2007 to 2020 in Humans and Domestic and Wild Animals. Pathogens. 2021; 10(7):892. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070892

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mínguez-González, Olga, César-Bernardo Gutiérrez-Martín, María d.C. Martínez-Nistal, María d.R. Esquivel-García, José-Ignacio Gómez-Campillo, Jesús-Ángel Collazos-Martínez, Luis-Miguel Fernández-Calle, Cristina Ruiz-Sopeña, Sonia Tamames-Gómez, Sonia Martínez-Martínez, Constantino Caminero-Saldaña, Marta Hernández, David Rodríguez-Lázaro, and Elías-Fernando Rodríguez-Ferri. 2021. "Tularemia Outbreaks in Spain from 2007 to 2020 in Humans and Domestic and Wild Animals" Pathogens 10, no. 7: 892. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10070892

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop