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Review

Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Central America and the Caribbean: A One Health Perspective

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Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
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Department of Medical Entomology, Gorgas Memorial Institute for Health Research, Panama 0816-02593, Panama
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Ambulance for Lyme Borreliosis and Other Tick-Borne Diseases, Pasteur Institute Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Department of Microbiology with Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
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Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Canada
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Department of Animal Health, National Center for Animal and Plant Health, Carretera de Tapaste y Autopista Nacional, Apartado Postal 10, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque 32700, Cuba
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CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, Petit-Bourg, 97170 Guadeloupe, France
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ASTRE, University de Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, 34398 Montpellier, France
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Department of Mycology-Bacteriology, Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kourí, Marianao 13, Havana 10400, Cuba
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Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, the University of Melbourne, Werribee, VIC 3030, Australia
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Anses, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, UMR BIPAR, Laboratoire de Santé Animale, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mária Kazimírová
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101273
Received: 8 August 2021 / Revised: 22 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 2 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Regional Impact of Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases)
Ticks have complex life cycles which involve blood-feeding stages found on wild and domestic animals, with humans as accidental hosts. At each blood-feeding stage, ticks can transmit and/or acquire pathogens from their hosts. Therefore, the circulation of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), especially the zoonotic ones, should be studied in a multi-layered manner, including all components of the chain of infections, following the ‘One Health’ tenets. The implementation of such an approach requires coordination among major stakeholders (such as veterinarians, physicians, acarologists, and researchers) for the identification of exposure and infection risks and application of effective prevention measures. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in Central America and the Caribbean and the challenges associated with the implementation of ‘One Health’ surveillance and control programs in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: ticks; tick-borne diseases; Central America; Caribbean; One Health ticks; tick-borne diseases; Central America; Caribbean; One Health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Charles, R.A.; Bermúdez, S.; Banović, P.; Alvarez, D.O.; Díaz-Sánchez, A.A.; Corona-González, B.; Etter, E.M.C.; Rodríguez González, I.; Ghafar, A.; Jabbar, A.; Moutailler, S.; Cabezas-Cruz, A. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Central America and the Caribbean: A One Health Perspective. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101273

AMA Style

Charles RA, Bermúdez S, Banović P, Alvarez DO, Díaz-Sánchez AA, Corona-González B, Etter EMC, Rodríguez González I, Ghafar A, Jabbar A, Moutailler S, Cabezas-Cruz A. Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Central America and the Caribbean: A One Health Perspective. Pathogens. 2021; 10(10):1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101273

Chicago/Turabian Style

Charles, Roxanne A., Sergio Bermúdez, Pavle Banović, Dasiel O. Alvarez, Adrian A. Díaz-Sánchez, Belkis Corona-González, Eric M.C. Etter, Islay Rodríguez González, Abdul Ghafar, Abdul Jabbar, Sara Moutailler, and Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz. 2021. "Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Central America and the Caribbean: A One Health Perspective" Pathogens 10, no. 10: 1273. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101273

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