2. Gender Equality and Work-Family Policies in Europe
3. Measuring Gender Equality in Europe
3.1. Gender Equality in European Countries
3.2. Studying Gender Role Attitudes to Measure Europeans’ Support for Gender Equality
4.1. Conceptualisation and Methodological Strategy
4.2. Measure of Gender Role Attitudes
- All in all, family life suffers when the mother has a full-time job.
- Women are less willing than men to make a career for themselves.
- Men should work more in childcare sectors, such as day nurseries.
- Overall, men are less competent than women to perform household tasks.
- A father must put his career ahead of looking after his young child.
4.3. Multi-Level Model
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. Micro-Level Results
5.2. Macro-Level Results
Conflicts of Interest
|Living standard||mean monthly earnings, in Euro PPP||Eurostat 2014, [earn_ses14_20]|
|Religiosity, 2010||% of population weekly attending mass||Eurobarometer 2010 (European Commission and European Parliament 2010)|
|Length of the workday||Average weekly hours worked in main job for full-time workers||Eurostat 2014 [lfsq_ewhun2]|
|Female earning capacity||Gender pay gap in unadjusted form by NACE Rev. 2 activity||Eurostat [earn_gr_gpgr2]|
|Work-time arrangements||Percentage of those stating they can adapt their working hours within certain limits (e.g., flextime) or working hours are entirely determined by themselves||European Quality of Work Survey 2014|
|Childcare of kindergarten children||Availability of formal childcare for 3–6-year olds: Children in at least 1 h of formal childcare or education by age group,—% over the population of each age group||Eurostat 2014 [ilc_camnforg0]|
|Childcare for pre-kindergarten children||Availability of formal childcare for 0–3-year olds: Children in in at least 1 h of formal childcare or education by age group and duration—% over the population of each age group||Eurostat 2014 [ilc_caindformal]|
|Maternal leave arrangements||Total paid leave available to mothers including paid maternity leave and paid parental and home care leave, length in weeks||OECD 2014|
|Paternal leave arrangements||Total paid leave available to fathers including paid paternity leave and paid parental and home care leave reserved for fathers, length in weeks||OECD 2014|
|5-Item Model||4-Item Model|
|Item||Factor 1||Factor 2||Factor 1|
|V1. All in all family life suffers when the mother has a full-time job||0.490||−0.140||0.509|
|V2. Women are less willing than men to make a career for themselves||0.514||0.218||0.472|
|V3. Men should work more in childcare sectors, such as day nurseries||0.000||0.122||-------|
|V4. Overall men are less competent than women to perform household tasks||0.579||−0.274||0.556|
|V5. A father must put his career ahead of looking after his young child||0.508||0.110||0.505|
|Metric||382.271 (117) ***||0.049||0.968||0.037|
|Partial metric (1, 2)||137.891 (59) ***||0.038||0.990||0.02|
|Scalar||3.090.131 (204) ***||0.124||0.647||0.106|
|Partial scalar (4, 1)||933.745 (146) ***||0.076||0.904||0.052|
|V1||1 2 3 4 (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 11 12 13 (14) (16) (17) 18 (19) (20) 21 22 (23) 24 25 (26) (27) 28 29 (30) 32||1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 (18) 19 20 21 22 (23) 24 25 26 (27) 28 (29) 30 32|
|V2||1 2 (3) 4 5 6 (7) 8 9 10 11 (12) 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32||1 2 (3) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2728 29 30 32|
|V4||1 2 3 4 (5) 6 7 8 9 (10) 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2627 28 29 (30) 32||1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2829 (30) 32|
|V5||1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 (17) 18 (19) 20 21 22 23 24 25 2627 28 29 30 32||1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 2829 30 32|
|Mean Earnings||Religiosity||Length Workday||Gender Pay Gap||Flextime||Childcare 3–6||Childcare 0–3||Maternal Leave||Paternal Leave|
|Gender Pay gap||0.0518||−0.3535||0.1106||1.0000|
|Male Model||Female Model|
|Length of the workday||−0.025||−0.020|
|Female earning capacity||0.003||0.008 *||0.003|
|Work-time arrangements||0.017 **||0.016 **||0.008 *|
|Childcare of kindergarten children||−0.003||−0.003|
|Childcare for pre-kindergarten children||0.015 **||0.009 **||0.014 **||0.008 **|
|Maternal leave arrangements||0.000||0.001|
|Paternal leave arrangements||−0.003||−0.001|
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Looking at the assumptions about gender roles and gender divisions of labor enshrined by EU directives on maternity rights and parental leave is extremely relevant. The main policies are the 1992 Pregnant Worker Directive, the 1996 Parental Leave Directive, the 1992 Childcare Recommendations, and the 2000 Council Resolution on Balanced Participation in Work and Family Life, and the most recent directive on parental leave in the Framework Agreement on Parental Leave, made binding by Council Directive 2010/18/EU (the Parental Leave Directive).
The objective was to make Europe the “most competitive continent in the world”, increasing productivity and employing twenty million more people within ten years.
The EIGE index is computed following the methodology developed by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Details concerning the indicator selection and the computation of the measures (weighting, aggregation, normalization, imputation) can be found in the EIGE Methodological Report (EIGE 2017b), which also includes the results of the assessment of the internal consistency and robustness of the EIGE index.
The relationship between living standard and gender attitudes is complex. We assume that firstly, in countries with lower income, the need for additional household income will make female employment more likely (without necessarily leading to work-family policies). On the other hand, richer countries are more likely to adapt post-materialist policies directed at issues such as gender inequality.
Austria (AT); Belgium (BE); Bulgaria (BG); Cyprus (CY); Czech Republic (CZ); Germany (DE); Denmark (DK); Estonia (EE); Spain (ES); Finland (FI); France (FR); Great Britain (GB-GBN); Northern Ireland (GB-NIR); Greece (GR); Croatia (HR); Hungary (HU); Ireland (IE); Italy (IT); Lithuania (LT); Luxembourg (LU); Latvia (LV); Malta (MT); Netherlands (NL); Poland (PL); Portugal (PT); Romania (RO); Sweden (SE); Slovenia (SI); Slovakia (SK).
More information concerning the sampling, way of data collection, response rate can be found in ZA5933: Eurobarometer 82.4 (2014). Methodology (GESIS 2018).
Also analysing the impact on the population at large would have been interesting, however taking the whole population into perspective might have veiled the significant effect on our specific group of analysis.
ICC = σμ2/(σμ2 + σε2) with sigma referring to the population-level estimates of variance.
Separate results were calculated including the activity status (care work, paid work, or unemployed) on the micro-level, the results did not change in significant ways. The results of these analysis can be delivered from the authors upon request. Due to effects of post-treatment controls (Gelman and Hill 2006), see methodological section, the results without activity status in the micro-level was preferred.
A quadratic term could be expected, based on the idea that neither very short, nor very long leave policies adequately address the problem of balancing child-parent bonding and gender mainstreaming and labour market return (see also André et al. 2013).
In their recent article, Grunow et al. (2018) adopt Latent Class Analysis to identify typologies of gender ideologies. Because of the aim of their study (to examine the form in which gender ideologies cluster in different countries) and of the type of technique used, they did not test for causal links but they found an association between the egalitarian gender ideologies and the work-family policy support for joint earning and caring, which in the current study we tried to examine. Kangas and Rostgaard (2007) demonstrated the contextual impact of institutional factors (e.g., availability of childcare services and parental-leave schemes, on women’s individual preferences for labor-market participation). With a similar perspective, Sjöberg (2004) and André et al. (2013) investigated the effect of work-family balance policies on gender-role attitudes.
Country codes: 1 = France; 2 = Belgium; 3 = Netherland; 4 = Germany West; 5 = Italy; 6 = Luxembourg; 7 = Denmark; 8 = Ireland; 9 = Great Britain; 10 = North Ireland; 11 = Greece; 12 = Spain; 13 = Portugal; 14 = Germany East; 16 = Finland; 17 = Sweden; 18 = Austria; 19 = Cyprus; 20 = Czech Rep.; 21 = Estonia; 22 = Hungary; 23 = Latvia; 24 = Lithuania; 25 = Malta; 26 = Poland; 27 = Slovakia; 28 = Slovenia; 29 = Bulgaria; 30 = Romania; 32 = Croatia.
|Overall Score||Domain Score|
|Country||Gender Equality Index||Work||Money||Knowledge||Time||Power||Health|
|Country Indicators||Workplace Indicators||Institutional Indicators|
|Country||Mean Earnings (in € PPP)||Religiosity (Weekly Attendance in % of Population)||Average Workday Length for Full-Time Workers (in h)||Flextime and Self-Determined Working Hours (in % of Workers)||Pay Gap Hourly, by NACE Activity, Unadjusted (% of Income Difference)||Childcare for Children below 3 Years old (in % of Children 0–3)||Childcare for Children 3 Years Old and up (in % of Children 3–6)||Length of Paid Maternity and Parental Leave (in Weeks)||Length of Paid Father-Specific Leave (in Weeks)|
|Country||Gender Ideology Index||N (Valid Cases)|
|Y=Support for egalitarian gender roles index||b/t||b/t||b/t|
|Age||(From 18 to 65)||−0.004 ** (−5.86)||−0.004 ** (−5.88)||−0.003 ** (−4.40)||−0.003 ** (−4.47)|
|Family type (Ref. Married with children)||Married, no children||−0.039 + (−1.68)||−0.040 + (−1.72)||−0.029 (−1.39)||−0.027 (−1.26)|
|Partner, no children||0.014 (0.51)||0.011 (0.41)||0.079 ** (2.85)||0.071 ** (2.57)|
|Separated, no children||0.057 + (1.72)||0.052 (1.58)||0.008 (0.25)||0.001 (0.04)|
|Separated, with children||0.234 ** (4.41)||0.233 ** (4.37)||−0.023 (−0.83)||−0.032 (−1.16)|
|Single, no children||0.005 (0.20)||0.000 (0.01)||0.055 * (2.22)||0.047 + (1.91)|
|Single, with children||0.019 (0.26)||0.016 (0.22)||0.105 ** (2.92)||0.110 ** (3.05)|
|Number of children in household||−0.015 + (−1.68)||−0.016 + (−1.69)||−0.028 ** (−3.50)||−0.024 ** (−2.98)|
|Education (Ref. Primary education)||Secondary education (up to 19 years)||0.151 ** (5.33)||0.154 ** (5.41)||0.120 ** (4.91)||0.093 ** (3.76)|
|Tertiary education (20 years and up)||0.259 ** (8.77)||0.263 ** (8.86)||0.288 ** (11.17)||0.251 ** (9.49)|
|Still studying||0.164 ** (4.05)||0.138 (1.63)||0.290 ** (7.56)||0.361 ** (8.77)|
|Activity status (Ref. Care work)||Paid employment||−0.035 (−0.46)||0.117 ** (5.77)|
|Unemployed||−0.007 (−0.09)||0.057 * (2.21)|
|Income (Ref. Often have income difficulties)||Never had income difficulties||0.122 ** (4.71)||0.130 ** (4.88)||0.124 ** (5.62)||0.117 ** (5.27)|
|Community (Ref. Rural)||Urban||0.017 (0.92)||0.018 (0.94)||0.042 * (2.39)||0.040 * (2.28)|
|N (number of respondents)||7483||7483||9360||9360|
|var_sum (σt = σμ + σε)||0.422||0.422||0.436||0.434|
|Category||Variables||M0 Male||M0 Female||M1 Male||M1 Female||M2 Male||M2 Female||M3 Male||M3 Female||M4 Male||M4 Female|
|Country characteristics||Living standard||0.019 **||0.018 **||0.005||0.005||0.003||0.006||−0.004||−0.002|
|Workplace arrangement||Average hours worked in full-time job||−0.027||−0.021|
|Hourly gender-pay gap||0.004||0.004|
|Ability to choose worktime or flextime||0.014 **||0.014 **||0.009 *||0.009 *|
|Institutional arrangement||Availability of formal childcare for 3- to 6-year-olds||−0.003||−0.003|
|Availability of formal childcare for 0- to 3-year-olds||0.014 **||0.013 **||0.010 **||0.008 **|
|Length of paid maternal leave||0.000||0.001|
|Length of paid paternal leave||−0.004||−0.001|
|N (number of respondents)||7483||9360||7483||9360||7483||9360||7483||9360||7483||9360|
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