Science Possible Selves and the Desire to be a Scientist: Mindsets, Gender Bias, and Confidence during Early Adolescence
1.1. Gender Identity in Early Adolescence
1.2. Mindsets and Gender Stereotypes
1.3. Science Confidence and Science Possible Selves
1.4. Current Study
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Bivariate Results
3.2. Multivariate Results
3.3. Boy-Science Bias and Science Confidence
3.4. Science Possible Self and the Desire to Be a Scientist
Conflicts of Interest
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We chose to dichotomize our dependent variables for multiple reasons. First, the explicit gender bias scale includes a girl science bias, but we dichotomized this variable and included those with a girl-science-bias with youth who report no bias because it is likely that a girl science bias has a different meaning and interpretation for boys and girls in a society with documented cultural biases favoring boys in science. We will explore girl-science-bias more fully in future work. Second, for the desire to be a scientist, science possible selves, and science confidence, we were interested in assessing the odds that someone would fall into the highest category compared to all others. We conducted a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how our results might differ if we use OLS regression on these four categories, and ordinal variables rather than the dichotomized variables. We found that the results varied little if we used the dichotomized or ordinal analyses. Our main findings for the associations of gender with the outcomes and among the core concepts (i.e., mindsets, gender bias, science confidence, science possible selves, and the desire to be a scientist) were similar for both approaches. Associations for two of the control variables (social capital and self-reported science grades) were significant in the OLS models with the ordinal outcomes but not in the logistic regression models with the dichotomous outcome. We interpret these differences in the models as indicating that social capital and science grades matter more when distinguishing among the lower categories.
|Boys (N = 284)||Girls (N = 245)||sig.|
|Desire to Be a Scientist||0.10||0.05||*|
|Science Possible Self||0.26||0.19||*|
|Books in the home (0–10 reference)||0.24||0.25||n.s.|
|Desire to Be a Scientist||Science Possible Selves||Science Confidence||Boy-Science-Bias||Essentialist Mindsets||Fixed Mindsets||Science Grades||Minority||College Expectations||Books > 100||Grade Level|
|Science Possible Selves||0.37||***|
|Books > 100||0.05||0.11||*||0.15||***||−0.10||*||0.02||−0.05||0.13||**||−0.20||**||0.13||**|
|Boy-Science Bias||Science Confidence|
|Model 1||Model 2||Model 3||Model 4|
|Girl (Boy Reference)||−0.75||0.26||*||−0.81||0.27||*||−0.47||0.26||+||−0.48||0.26||+|
|Focal Independent Variables|
|Racial/Ethnic Minority (White reference)||0.13||0.30||0.13||0.30||−0.18||0.26||−0.18||0.26|
|Books in the home (0–10 reference)|
|Nagelkerke R squared||0.11||***||0.13||***||0.34||***||0.34||***|
|Science Possible Self||Desire to be a Scientist|
|Model 1||Model 2||Model 3|
|Girl (Boy Reference)||−0.40||0.24||+||−0.42||0.25||+||−0.27||0.40|
|Focal Independent Variables|
|Science Possible Self||-||-||-||-||2.42||0.45||***|
|Racial/Ethnic Minority (white reference)||−0.15||0.25||−0.16||0.42|
|Books in the home (0–10 reference)|
|Nagelkerke R squared||0.26||***||0.26||***||0.34||***|
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Wonch Hill, P.; McQuillan, J.; Talbert, E.; Spiegel, A.; Gauthier, G.R.; Diamond, J. Science Possible Selves and the Desire to be a Scientist: Mindsets, Gender Bias, and Confidence during Early Adolescence. Soc. Sci. 2017, 6, 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6020055
Wonch Hill P, McQuillan J, Talbert E, Spiegel A, Gauthier GR, Diamond J. Science Possible Selves and the Desire to be a Scientist: Mindsets, Gender Bias, and Confidence during Early Adolescence. Social Sciences. 2017; 6(2):55. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6020055Chicago/Turabian Style
Wonch Hill, Patricia, Julia McQuillan, Eli Talbert, Amy Spiegel, G. Robin Gauthier, and Judy Diamond. 2017. "Science Possible Selves and the Desire to be a Scientist: Mindsets, Gender Bias, and Confidence during Early Adolescence" Social Sciences 6, no. 2: 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci6020055