Theorising Gender-Based Violence Policies: A 7P Framework
Evolution of the 7P Model
- Policy is the basis of the approach and refers to both a coherent set of measures with a clear vision and strategy, and specific policy documents detailing such measures.
- Prevalence and incidence estimates contribute to evidence-based policymaking. Data can be collected through surveys or administrative processes (e.g., the registration of complaints). Importantly, data collection and analysis must take an intersectional approach, taking into account, for example, people’s ethnicity and origin, age, gender identity, sexual orientation, as well as their function within the organisation.
- Prevention refers to measures that promote changes in social and cultural behaviour. This may include induction materials for both staff and students; internal and external publicity and training; and public statements and visuals.
- Protection is about ensuring safety and meeting the needs of (potential) victims and survivors, with the objective to avoid (further) harm being inflicted. This includes clear processes, procedures, and infrastructure for reporting occurrences, and training for those responsible for handling cases. Protection may comprise measures such as a restraining order or offering a change of dormitory, student group, unit or supervisor.
- Prosecution and disciplinary measures cover legal and disciplinary proceedings against perpetrators, and related investigative measures and judicial proceedings. This includes possible warnings, suspension, termination of employment and study, as legally appropriate, and liaison with legal, police and criminal justice organisations and professionals.
- Provision of services refers to the services offered to support victims, families, bystanders, perpetrators and the community affected by gender-based violence. It can include counselling; legal, psychological and medical support; accommodating different exam, study or teaching schedules; and also rehabilitation programmes for perpetrators. Importantly, the availability of services needs to be well known by all staff and students as well as by managers and supervisors.
- Partnerships relate to the involvement of relevant actors at all levels, such as governmental agencies, civil society organisations, trade unions, or staff and student associations.
2. Materials and Methods
- Micro level: Prevalence and impacts of gender-based violence are analysed via data gathered by a survey sampling 46 research organisations (N = 42,000), by a Europe-wide survey of mobile researchers and interviews with early career researchers.
- Meso level: Organisational responses and infrastructure are analysed via data gathered by in-depth case studies, interviews, and a strategic mapping of research organisations in 15 member states.
- Macro level: Legal and policy frameworks are analysed via extensive mapping by national experts in EU26, the UK and three Associated States.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Gaps in the Coverage of the 7Ps
3.2. Gaps in Addressing Intersectionality
3.3. Further Refinement of the Conceptualisation of the 7Ps
3.4. Newly Emergent Insights: Principles Underpinning the 7P Model
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Anitha, Sundari, and Ruth Lewis. 2018. Gender-Based Violence in University Communities. Policy, Prevention and Educational Initiatives. Bristol: Policy Press. [Google Scholar]
- Blazyte, Giedre, and Vilana Pilinkaite Sotirovic. 2023. Individual Experiences and Observation of Gender-based Violence in Academia. Executive Summary of the Analysis of Interviews with Researchers at Higher Risk to Gender-Based Violence. Geneva: Zenodo. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bondestam, Fredrik, and Maja Lundqvist. 2020. Sexual harassment in higher education—A systematic review. European Journal of Higher Education 10: 397–419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Casey, Erin, Juliana Carlson, Sierra Two Bulls, and Aurora Yager. 2018. Gender transformative approaches to engaging men in gender-based violence prevention: A review and conceptual model. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse 19: 231–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Choudhry, Shazia. 2016. Towards a transformative conceptualisation of violence against women. A critical frame analysis of Council of Europe discourse on violence against women. The Modern Law Review 79: 406–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Connell, Raewyn. 2014. The study of masculinities. Qualitative Research Journal 14: 5–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Council of Europe. 2014. Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence. Council of Europe Treaty Series No 210; Istanbul: Council of Europe. [Google Scholar]
- Council of the EU. 2021. Council Conclusions on the Future Governance of the European Research Area (14308/21). Available online: https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-14308-2021-INIT/en/pdf (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- DeKeseredy, Walter S., Martin D. Schwartz, and Shahid Alvi. 2000. The role of profeminist men in dealing with woman abuse on the Canadian college campus. Violence Against Women 6: 918–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission. 2010. Daphne III Programme 2007–2013: Action Grants to Combat Violence against Children, Young People and Women and to Protect Victims and Groups at Risk. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/justice/grants1/programmes-2007-2013/daphne/index_en.htm (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- European Commission. 2017. Study on the Gender Dimension of Trafficking in Human Beings. Luxembourg: Publications Office. [Google Scholar]
- European Commission. 2019. EU-Wide Survey on Violence against Women. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/default/files/aid_development_cooperation_fundamental_rights/2019_vaw_survey_implementation_plan_en.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- European Commission. 2020a. A Union of Equality: Gender Equality Strategy 2020–2025. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52020DC0152 (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- European Commission. 2020b. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. P. A New ERA for Research and Innovation (COM2020 628 Final). Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52020DC0628 (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- Fajmonová, Veronika, Averil Huck, Jana Dvořáčková, and Marcela Linková. 2023. Gender-Based Violence and Institutional Responses: Building a Knowledge Base and Operational Tools to Make Universities and Research Organisations Safe (UniSAFE)—Survey at the National Level. Dataset Related to the National Laws and Policies and RFO Policies—2021. Prague: Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences. [Google Scholar]
- Fajmonová, Veronika, Averil Huck, Jana Dvořáčková, Zuzana Andreska, and Marcela Linková. 2021. UniSAFE D3.2 Report on the European Policy Baseline. Geneva: Zenodo. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Flood, Michael. 2015. Work with men to end violence against women: A critical stocktake. Culture, Health & Sexuality 17: 159–76. [Google Scholar]
- Flood, Michael. 2019. Engaging Men and Boys in Violence Prevention. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
- Gonçalves, Mariana, and Marlene Matos. 2020. Lifetime victimization: Identifying frequency and emotional (dis)adjustment among Portuguese and immigrant women. Victims & Offenders 15: 771–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hearn, Jeff. 1998. The Violences of Men. How Man Talk about and How Agencies Respond to Men’s Violence to Women. London: Sage. [Google Scholar]
- Hearn, Jeff, Sofia Strid, Anne Laure Humbert, Dag Balkmar, and Marine Delaunay. 2022. From gender regimes to violence regimes: Re-thinking the position of violence. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 29: 682–705. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huck, Averil, Veronika Fajmonová, Jana Dvořáčková, and Marcela Linková. 2023a. Gender-Based Violence and Institutional Responses: Building a Knowledge Base and Operational Tools to Make Universities and Research Organisations Safe (UniSAFE)—Survey at the National Level. Dataset related to the mapping at the national level of gender based violence policies in universities and research organisations—2021. Prague: Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences. [Google Scholar]
- Huck, Averil, Zuzana Andreska, Jana Dvořáčková, and Marcela Linková. 2022. UniSAFE 5.1: Inventory of Policies and Measures to Respond to GBV in European Universities and Research Organisations. Geneva: Zenodo. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huck, Averil, Zuzana Andreska, Jana Dvořáčková, and Marcela Linková. 2023b. Gender-Based Violence and Institutional Responses: Building a Knowledge Base and Operational Tools to Make Universities and Research Organisations Safe (UniSAFE)—Survey at the Institutional Level. Dataset Related to the Institutional Policies—2023. Prague: Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences. [Google Scholar]
- Humbert, Anne Laure, Nicole Ovesen, Angelica Simonsson, Sofia Strid, Jeff Hearn, Averil Huck, Zuzana Andreska, Marcela Linková, Vilana Pilinkaitė Sotirovič, and Blažytė Gierdre. 2022. UniSAFE D6.1: Report on the Multi-Level Analysis and Integrated Dataset. Geneva: Zenodo. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Humbert, Anne Laure, Sofia Strid, Jeff Hearn, and Dag Balkmar. 2021. Undoing the ‘Nordic Paradox’: Factors affecting rates of disclosed violence against women across the EU. PLoS ONE 16: e0249693. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Jewkes, Rachel, Michael Flood, and James Lang. 2015. From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reductions of inequities in gender relations: A conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls. The Lancet 385: 1580–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kelly, Liz. 1988. Surviving Sexual Violence. Cambridge: Polity Press. [Google Scholar]
- Leye, Els, Lut Mergaert, Catarina Arnaut, Jessika Deblonde, Annemarie Middelburg, Siobán O’Brien Green, and Anke van Vossole. 2013. Female Genital Mutilation in the European Union and Croatia. Vilnius: European Institute for Gender Equality. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lipinsky, Anke, Claudia Schredl, Horst Baumann, Anne Laure Humbert, Jagriti Tanwar, Fredrik Bondestam, Frederike Freund, and Vera Lomazzi. 2022. UniSAFE Survey—Gender-Based Violence and Institutional Responses. Datenfile Version 1.0.0. Mannheim: GESIS—Leibniz Institut für Sozialwissenschaften. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- MacKinnon, Catherine A. 1989. Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Mergaert, Lut, Catarina Arnaut, Tine Vertommen, and Melanie Lang. 2016. Study on Gender-Based Violence in Sport. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Available online: https://sport.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/gender-based-violence-sport-study-2016_en.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- Mergaert, Lut, Marcela Linková, and Sofia Strid. 2022. A way forward to increase science legitimacy by eradicating gender-based violence and sexual harassment from universities. Paper presented at EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF2022), Leiden, The Netherlands, July 15. [Google Scholar]
- Messinger, Adam M. 2011. Invisible victims: Same-sex IPV in the national violence against women survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26: 2228–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- O’Connor, Pat, Margaret Hodgins, Dorian R. Woods, Erika Wallwaey, Rachel Palmen, Marieke Van Den Brink, and Evanthia Kalpazidou Schmidt. 2021. Organisational characteristics that facilitate gender-based violence and harassment in higher education? Administrative Sciences 11: 138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peroni, Lourdes. 2016. Violence against migrant women: The Istanbul Convention through a postcolonial feminist lens. Feminist Legal Studies 24: 49–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ranea-Triviño, Beatriz, Lorena Pajares, María Bustelo, and Bruna Cristina Jaquetto Pereira. 2022. UniSAFE D5.2: Report on Case Studies on the Effects and Consequences of Institutional Responses to Gender-Based Violence along the 7Ps in Research Performing Organisations. Geneva: Zenodo. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Roudsari, Bahman S., Matthew M. Leahy, and Scott T. Walters. 2009. Correlates of dating violence among male and female heavy-drinking college students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 24: 1892–905. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sohn, Emily. 2022. How hiring policies can help end workplace harassment. Nature 609: 1063–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Strid, Sofia, and David Meier Arendt. 2020. Våld som system. Våld, maskulinitet och förändring. Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift 97: 235–47. [Google Scholar]
- Strid, Sofia, Anne Laure Humbert, Jeff Hearn, and Dag Balkmar. 2021a. States of violence: From welfare regimes to violence regimes. Journal of European Social Policy 31: 321–36. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Strid, Sofia, Anne Laure Humbert, Jeff Hearn, Fredrik Bondestam, and Liisa Husu. 2021b. UniSAFE D3.1 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework. Geneva: Zenodo. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations. 2006. In-Depth Study on All Forms of Violence against Women: Report of the Secretary-General. United Nations General Assembly. Available online: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N06/419/74/PDF/N0641974.pdf?OpenElement (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- United Nations. 2017. Human Rights Council: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences. Rashida Manjoo. A/HRC/20/16. Available online: https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session20/A-HRC-20-16-Add4_en.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2023).
- Voth Schrag, Rachel J. 2017. Campus based sexual assault and dating violence: A review of study contexts and participants. Affilia 32: 67–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wemrell, Maria, Sara Stjernlöf, Justin Aenishänslin, Marisol Lila, Enrique Gracia, and Anna-Karin Ivert. 2019. Towards understanding the Nordic paradox: A review of qualitative interview studies on intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in Sweden. Sociology Compass 13: e12699. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Yellow Window. 2023a. Report from UniSAFE workshops Task 7.1 Development of insights (unpublished working document). [Google Scholar]
- Yellow Window. 2023b. Report from UniSAFE workshops Task 7.3 Toolbox development, first wave (unpublished working document). [Google Scholar]
- Zachariassen, Heidi Holt, Ella Gosh, and Ross Woods. 2023. GENDERACTIONplus Deliverable 2.1 Benchmarking Report on Terminology and Policy on Intersectionality. Available online: https://genderaction.eu/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/GENDERACTIONplus_D2.1_Benchmarking-report-on-terminology-and-policy-on-intersectionality.pdf (accessed on 27 April 2023).
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Mergaert, L.; Linková, M.; Strid, S. Theorising Gender-Based Violence Policies: A 7P Framework. Soc. Sci. 2023, 12, 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12070385
Mergaert L, Linková M, Strid S. Theorising Gender-Based Violence Policies: A 7P Framework. Social Sciences. 2023; 12(7):385. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12070385Chicago/Turabian Style
Mergaert, Lut, Marcela Linková, and Sofia Strid. 2023. "Theorising Gender-Based Violence Policies: A 7P Framework" Social Sciences 12, no. 7: 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12070385