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Article

Demographics of Sudanese University Students in Relation to Regional Conflict and Underdevelopment

1
Department of Information Technology, Faculty of CSIT, Alzaiem Alazhari University, Khartoum 13311, Sudan
2
Department of Science and Mathematics, Texas A&M University-Central Texas, Killeen, TX 76549, USA
3
Department of Information Systems, CEMIS College, University of Nizwa, Birkat Al-Mouz, Nizwa PC 616, Oman
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nigel Parton
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10030089
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Economic Implications of Skill and Educational Mismatch)
This research examines regional differences in higher education participation rates in Sudan, and their relations with socioeconomic factors related to development, such as human development index (HDI), women’s status, urban/rural, and source of income. We pay special attention to areas of Sudan where long-running conflicts exist. Two datasets are used: the 2009 National Baseline Household Survey, conducted by Sudan’s Central Bureau of Statistics; and 2016–2017 matriculating students’ data, obtained from Sudan’s Ministry of Education. Regression analysis of the household survey data shows that the most significant factors associated with university attendance are having electricity at home, having a mother who has completed primary education, and being from a non-conflict region. University entrance data shows that young adults from conflict regions lag markedly behind the rest of Sudan in entering students’ academic level. Educational resources in Sudan are densely concentrated in the capital Khartoum, and higher-performing students (especially males) from all regions tend to enroll in universities in Khartoum. Regional universities’ student bodies consist largely of lower-performing students from the same region, especially in conflict regions. Women’s participation in higher education is robust, and women bachelor’s students outnumber men. Our analysis suggests that the following policies could be most effective in improving regional higher education enrollment rates and outcomes: (1) improve infrastructure (electric power in particular) in underserved regions; (2) provide widespread primary education for women; (3) put additional resources into regional universities, to encourage geographical diversity and to better serve women in underdeveloped regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sudan; higher education; university students; development; regional; conflict; women; demographics; diversity Sudan; higher education; university students; development; regional; conflict; women; demographics; diversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamid, M.; Thron, C.; Fageeri, S. Demographics of Sudanese University Students in Relation to Regional Conflict and Underdevelopment. Soc. Sci. 2021, 10, 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10030089

AMA Style

Hamid M, Thron C, Fageeri S. Demographics of Sudanese University Students in Relation to Regional Conflict and Underdevelopment. Social Sciences. 2021; 10(3):89. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10030089

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamid, Monira, Christopher Thron, and Sallam Fageeri. 2021. "Demographics of Sudanese University Students in Relation to Regional Conflict and Underdevelopment" Social Sciences 10, no. 3: 89. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10030089

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