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Article

Household Social Expenditure in Ghana: Examining the Ex-Post Effects and Vulnerability to Poverty

1
Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER), University of Ghana, Legon GA-521-9360, Ghana
2
Department of Applied Economics, School of Economics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast CC-192-2031, Ghana
3
Department Economic Studies, School of Economics, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast CC-192-2031, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Soc. Sci. 2021, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020040
Received: 26 September 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
We estimate the effect of household social expenditure on vulnerability to poverty using the four latest cross-sectional waves of Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) from 1999 to 2017. Using a 3-Stage Least Square and Quantile Regression, our results show a widening consumption ex-post welfare gap between the poorest households and the non-poor households in a per-dollar social expenditure. Further, we estimate the probability of an ex-ante poverty using vulnerability to expected poverty. The results, however, indicate that regardless of poverty status, household vulnerability to poverty increased consistently between 1999 and 2017, and the very poor households showing the severest vulnerability. Hence, it is concluded that social expenditure increases the chances of a poor household falling into chronic poverty a non-poor household into transient poverty in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: social expenditure; welfare; vulnerability; household; poverty social expenditure; welfare; vulnerability; household; poverty
MDPI and ACS Style

Nkrumah, R.K.; Annim, S.K.; Afful, B., Jr. Household Social Expenditure in Ghana: Examining the Ex-Post Effects and Vulnerability to Poverty. Soc. Sci. 2021, 10, 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020040

AMA Style

Nkrumah RK, Annim SK, Afful B Jr. Household Social Expenditure in Ghana: Examining the Ex-Post Effects and Vulnerability to Poverty. Social Sciences. 2021; 10(2):40. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020040

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nkrumah, Richard K., Samuel K. Annim, and Benedict Afful Jr. 2021. "Household Social Expenditure in Ghana: Examining the Ex-Post Effects and Vulnerability to Poverty" Social Sciences 10, no. 2: 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10020040

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