On Crescencio Martinez’s death, see Edgar L. Hewett. 1918. “Crescencio Martinez—Artist.” El Palacio 5: 67–69. On Alfredo Montoya’s death, see Bertha P. Dutton. 1942. “Alfredo Montoya—Pioneer Artist.” El Palacio 49: 143–4. Gregory Schaaf. 2000. Pueblo Indian Pottery: 750 Artist Biographies, c. 1800-present. American Indian Art Series. Santa Fe: CIAC Press. p. 208. claims Montoya died in “the flu epidemic of 1913,” but provides no citation. On the death of Awa Tsireh’s wife, see letter from Lansing B. Bloom to Edgar L. Hewett, 27 June 1921, Edgar L. Hewett Collection, Fray Angélico Chávez History Library, Santa Fe, box 17, folder 8. Bloom explains to Hewett that Awa Tsireh’s wife had died the week before; he does not mention Awa Tsireh’s son. Dunn describes Awa Tsireh as someone who carried a profound sense of “grief and loneliness” after the loss of his wife and infant son; see Dorothy Dunn. 1956. “Awa Tsireh: Painter of San Ildefonso.” El Palacio 63: 108. On Tonita Peña moving to Cochiti and the deaths of her first husband, aunt, and uncle, see Samuel L. Gray. 1990. Tonita Peña: Quah Ah 1893–1949. Albuquerque: Avanyu Publishing, Inc., pp. 12–16. On Martina and Florentino Montoya’s deaths, also see Jonathan Batkin. 1987. “Martina Vigil and Florentino Montoya: Master Potters of San Ildefonso and Cochiti Pueblos.” American Indian Art Magazine 12: 31. On the death of Peña’s baby, see Alice Corbin Henderson. 1933. The Development of Modern Indian Painting. Typescript of a paper read at the Colorado Spring Art Center, 1933, located in the William Penhallow Henderson Paper, Archives of American Art, Washington, DC, box 6.
Indian Country Today has provided extensive news coverage of how the COVID-19 crisis is impacting Native communities. See, for example, “Arizona: 16 Percent of the COVID-19 Deaths Are Native Americans.” April 13, 2020. Available online: https://indiancountrytoday.com/news/arizona-16-percent-of-covid-19-deaths-are-native-americans-b-n3zYNsgUGFHiFSZpzPxg (accessed on 25 June 2020). On the crisis within Indigenous communities, also see Dana Hedgpeth, Darryl Fears, and Gregory Scruggs. 2020. “Indian Country, where residents suffer disproportionately from disease, is bracing for coronavirus.” The Washington Post, April 4. Available online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/climate-environment/2020/04/04/native-american-coronavirus/ (accessed on 25 June 2020); “Coronavirus in Indian Country: Latest Case Counts,” UCLA American Indian Studies Center. Available online: https://www.aisc.ucla.edu/progression_charts.aspx; Nicholas Kristof. 2020. “The Top U.S. Coronavirus Hots Spots are All on Indian Lands.” New York Times, May 30. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/30/opinion/sunday/coronavirus-native-americans.html (accessed on 25 June 2020); and Gregory D. Smithers. 2020. “Covid-19 has been brutal in Indian country—just like past epidemics were.” The Washington Post, May 20. Available online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2020/05/20/covid-19-has-been-brutal-indian-country-just-like-past-epidemics-were/ (accessed on 25 June 2020).
The top five demographic groups killed by police, according to data collected between 1999 and 2011, are African American age 20–24 (7.1 per million population per year), Native American age 25–34 (6.6), Native American age 35–44 (5.9), African American age 25–34 (5.6), and Native American 20–24 (4.6); see Mike Males. 2014. “Who Are Police Killing?”, Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.” August 26. Available online: http://www.cjcj.org/news/8113 (source of data, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics). On police use of lethal force against Native Americans and failures in the media to cover these deaths, see Jean Reith Schroedel and Roger J. Chin. 2020. “Whose Lives Matter: The Media’s Failure to Cover Police Use of Lethal Force Against Native Americans.” Race and Justice 10: 150–75. On rates of sexual violence against Native women and the challenges of collecting and analyzing this data, see Sarah Deer. 2015. The Beginning and End of Rape: Confronting Sexual Violence in Native America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 1–15. For statistics on violence against Native women, see André B. Rosay. 2016. “Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women and Men: 2010 Findings from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey.” In National Institute of Justice Research Report. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, May 2016. The recent (2016) controversy surrounding Energy Transfer Partners’ Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL) was widely covered in the press and protested by the #NoDAPL movement. TransCanada Corporation’s Keystone Pipeline, whose extension triggered protests at Standing Rock, has repeatedly leaked oil; see Sarah Gibbens and Craig Welch. 2019. “Keystone Pipeline Spills 200,000 Gallons of Oil.” National Geographic, November 16. Available online: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2017/11/keystone-oil-spill-south-dakota-spd/ (accessed on 25 June 2020); and Max Cohen. 2019. “Portion of Keystone Pipeline shut down after 380,000-gallon oil leak in North Dakota.” USA Today, November 1. Available online: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/11/01/keystone-pipeline-leak-oil-spilled-north-dakota/4121954002/ (accessed on 25 June 2020). There have been many oil spills on Indigenous lands; see, for example, Ethan Lou and Alastair Sharp. 2017. “Canada oil pipeline spills 200,000 liters on aboriginal lands.” Reuters, January 23. Available online: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-canada-pipeline-leak/canada-oil-pipeline-spills-200000-liters-on-aboriginal-land-idUSKBN1572UJ. Health disparities felt by Native Americans are documented by the Indian Health Service; for the October 2019 “Fact Sheet,” see https://www.ihs.gov/newsroom/factsheets/disparities/. On implicit bias and health care, see Khiara M. Bridges. 2018. “Implicit Bias and Racial Disparities in Health Care.” Human Rights Magazine 43, no. 3. Special Issue on The State of Healthcare in the United States; Available online: https://www.americanbar.org/groups/crsj/publications/human_rights_magazine_home/the-state-of-healthcare-in-the-united-states/racial-disparities-in-health-care/ (accessed on 25 June 2020). On how this issue affects Native people, see Jennie R. Joe. 2003. “The Rationing of Healthcare and Health Disparity for American Indians/Alaska Natives.” In Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Edited by Brian D. Smedley, Adrienne Y. Smith, and Alan R. Nelson. Washington: The National Academies Press, pp. 528–51.
See Bryan McKinley Jones Brayboy, Jessica A. Solyom, and Angelina E. Castago. 2015. “Indigenous Peoples in Higher Education.” Journal of American Indian Education 54: 154–86; Patricia A. Matthew. 2016. “What Is Faculty Diversity Worth to a University.” The Atlantic, November 23. Available online: https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2016/11/what-is-faculty-diversity-worth-to-a-university/508334/ (accessed on 25 June 2020); and Social Sciences Feminist Network Research Interest Group. 2017. “The Burden of Invisible Work in Academia: Social Inequalities and Time Use in Five University Departments.” Humboldt Journal of Social Relations 39: 228–45. Special Issue on Diversity and Social Justice in Higher Education.
On the history of “playing Indian” and mythologizing American history, see Philip J. Deloria. 1998. Playing Indian. New Haven: Yale University Press. On mascots, see Jason Edward Black. 2002. “The ‘Mascotting’ of Native America: Construction, Commodity, and Assimilation.” American Indian Quarterly 26: 605–22; Elizabeth M. Delacruz. 2003. “Racism American Style and Resistance to Change: Art Education’s Role in the Indian Mascot Issue.” Art Education 56: 13–20; Suzan Shown Harjo. 2005. “Just Good Sports: The Impact of ‘Native’ References in Sports on Native Youth and What Some Decolonizers Have Done About it.” In For Indigenous Eyes Only: A Decolonization Handbook. Edited by Waziyatawin Angela Wilson and Michael Yellow Bird. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press, pp. 31–52.
See Gerald R. Vizenor. 1994. Manifest Manners: Postindian Warriors of Survivance. Hanover: University Press of New England; and Gerald R. Vizenor. 2009. Native Liberty: Natural Reason and Cultural Survivance. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
See Jolene Rickard. 1995. “Sovereignty: A Line in the Sand.” In Strong Hearts: Native American Visons and Voices, Aperture. no. 139. New York: Aperture, pp. 50–59; Jolene Rickard. 2011. “Visualizing Sovereignty in the Time of Biometric Sensors.” South Atlantic Quarterly 110: 465–82; and Jolene Rickard. 2017. “Diversifying Sovereignty and the Reception of Indigenous Art.” Art Journal 76: 81–84.
See Rickard. “Visualizing Sovereignty in the Time of Biometric Sensors.” 470–3.
Philip J. Deloria. 2019. Becoming Mary Sully: Toward an American Indian Abstract. Seattle: University of Washington Press, p. 22.
To give just two of the many recent examples, see Andrew R. Chow. 2017. “Walker Art Center Delays Opening of Sculpture Garden Following Controversy.” New York Times, May 30. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/30/arts/design/walker-art-center-sculpture-garden-dakota.html; and, Steve Johnson. 2019. “Art Institute postpones major Native American pottery exhibit over cultural insensitivity concerns at the last minute.” Chicago Tribune, April 1. Available online: https://www.chicagotribune.com/entertainment/museums/ct-ent-art-institute-postpones-native-american-pottery-exhibition-0402-story.html (accessed on 28 June 2020).
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).