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Open AccessArticle

Manual of Cupule Replication Technology

by Giriraj Kumar 1,* and Ram Krishna 2
1
Faculty of Arts, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282005, India
2
BTech (EE), MBA, Faculty of Management, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282005, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert G. Bednarik
Arts 2015, 4(3), 101-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts4030101
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 27 May 2015 / Accepted: 30 June 2015 / Published: 23 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection World Rock Art)
Throughout the world, iconic rock art is preceded by non-iconic rock art. Cupules (manmade, roughly semi-hemispherical depressions on rocks) form the major bulk of the early non-iconic rock art globally. The antiquity of cupules extends back to the Lower Paleolithic in Asia and Africa, hundreds of thousand years ago. When one observes these cupules, the inquisitive mind poses so many questions with regard to understanding their technology, reasons for selecting the site, which rocks were used to make the hammer stones used, the skill and cognitive abilities employed to create the different types of cupules, the objective of their creation, their age, and so on. Replication of the cupules can provide satisfactory answers to some of these questions. Comparison of the hammer stones and cupules produced by the replication process with those obtained from excavation can provide support to observations. This paper presents a manual of cupule replication technology based on our experience of cupule replication on hard quartzite rock near Daraki-Chattan in the Chambal Basin, India. View Full-Text
Keywords: cupule; replication; technology; manual; quartzite rock cupule; replication; technology; manual; quartzite rock
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Kumar, G.; Krishna, R. Manual of Cupule Replication Technology. Arts 2015, 4, 101-120.

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