In moderate climates, the operation of windows is the most common way to control for thermal comfort. Window-opening behavior (WOB) is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, yet only simple bi-variate analyses between variables obtained from longitudinal datasets have been examined. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of indoor and outdoor environmental parameters on WOB using a statistical modeling approach called “structural equation modeling.” The results show that the indoor environmental parameters, such as operative temperature and air velocity, mediated the relationship between the outdoor environmental parameters, such as outdoor air temperature and wind gust, and the WOB. The indoor wet-bulb globe temperature rose as the solar radiation increased, and subsequently, both parameters affected the WOB. Also, an increase in outdoor wind gust led to higher indoor air velocity, which in turn resulted in a lower chance of occupants opening the window. By enhancing our understanding of the relationship between these theoretical parameters, improved design strategies on the mediating parameters can be prioritized and communicated early in the building design phase leading to more informed design decisions.
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