# Manufacturing, Modeling, Implementation and Evaluation of a Weatherproof Seal for Prefabricated Construction

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Conventional Solution

## 3. Proposed Solution

## 4. Method

^{2}·s and 8.0 L/m

^{2}·s for all non-air-conditioned building [18].

^{2}·s. The first 5 min will be water sprayed with zero applied pressure, then 15 min of water sprayed with the applied pressure then a final 5 min of water sprayed without the applied pressure, during this time observations are to be made from the internal face and any water ingress and damage is to be recorded.

## 5. Manufacturing

## 6. Modeling

#### 6.1. Hyperelastic Material Model

#### 6.2. Neo-Hookean Model

#### 6.3. Finite Element Model

#### 6.4. Assumptions/Simulation Setup

- Non-linear static analysis with direct solver.
- Symmetric, Normal Lagrange contacts.
- The only mode of failure assumed is the separation between EPDM seal and top plate.
- Material assumed fully impermeable to fluids.
- Negligible deformation of top and bottom plates.
- Plane strain condition initially assumed. This assumption is investigated, the result is a larger material stiffness compared to plane stress as the material is not allowed to deform out of plane.
- A friction factor of 0.1 between top plate and EPDM rubber. This assumption is investigated through a sensitivity analysis, the result is that overall sealing performance is not primarily sensitive to friction.

#### 6.5. Deformation Analysis and Verification of Stage One

#### 6.6. Plane Strain Assumption

- (1)
- Plane strain (infinite length).
- (2)
- Plane stress (1.5 m).

- When predicting required vertical loading, use the plane strain assumption.
- When testing waterproof performance with fluid penetrating pressure, use the plane stress assumption (This case is critical due to smaller contact area and contact pressure between the seal and top plate).

#### 6.7. Frictional Effects

- (1)
- Frictionless, COF = 0.
- (2)
- COF = 0.1.
- (3)
- COF = 2.0.

#### 6.8. Fluid Pressure Penetration—Stage Two

#### 6.9. Finite Element Summary

## 7. Implementation

#### 7.1. Small Scale

#### 7.2. Full Scale

## 8. Monitoring and Evaluation

## 9. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Gasket and jointing element sealing principles [11].

**Figure 5.**Material testing of EPDM rubber used for Gasket: (

**a**) Uniaxial Compression; (

**b**) Uniaxial Tension.

**Figure 7.**Geometry of the gasket seal before compression (Stage 1: Compression, Stage 2: Water Pressure).

**Figure 9.**Geometry of the gasket seal after compression for identical loading cases: (

**a**) Mesh A; (

**b**) Mesh B; (

**c**) Mesh C.

**Figure 11.**Contour plot of equivalent stress for simulations: (

**a**) Plane Stress Assumption; (

**b**) Plane Strain Assumption.

**Figure 14.**Waterproof performance of EPDM seal for a variety vertical displacement. Plane stress (1.5 m), COF = 0.1.

**Figure 15.**Gasket Seal Water Penetration Testing (

**a**) EPDM rubber gasket seal between testing panels; (

**b**) A rubber boot seal to distribute water pressure to the gasket.

**Figure 16.**Implementation with panelised form of prefabricated construction: (

**a**) Commercial office building using the gasket seals; (

**b**) EPDM gasket seal positions on the wall towards the outside face.

**Figure 17.**Lifting and placement of panels: (

**a**) Complete prefabricated wall panels are lifted and place into position whilst compressing the rubber gasket; (

**b**) Due diligence in measurement of gap width and assessment of shape and embedment depth.

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Orlowski, K.; Shanaka, K.; Mendis, P. Manufacturing, Modeling, Implementation and Evaluation of a Weatherproof Seal for Prefabricated Construction. *Buildings* **2018**, *8*, 120.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090120

**AMA Style**

Orlowski K, Shanaka K, Mendis P. Manufacturing, Modeling, Implementation and Evaluation of a Weatherproof Seal for Prefabricated Construction. *Buildings*. 2018; 8(9):120.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090120

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Orlowski, Kristopher, Kasun Shanaka, and Priyan Mendis. 2018. "Manufacturing, Modeling, Implementation and Evaluation of a Weatherproof Seal for Prefabricated Construction" *Buildings* 8, no. 9: 120.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090120