Smart Solar-Powered LED Outdoor Lighting System Based on the Energy Storage Level in Batteries
2. The Main Concept of the New System
- Charging Mode: During the day, the PV panels converts the solar energy into electrical energy and store it in the battery.
- Discharging Mode: During the night with no solar irradiation, the light requirements are triggered via a photosensor. The controller turns the light “on”. Energy is then withdrawn from the battery to turn the light load “on”. During this period, the controller keeps track of the voltage of the battery. If the battery voltage reduces below a certain threshold (which will be decided later) the dimmer starts to reduce the intensity of light. This will reduce the energy withdrawal from the battery. A further drop in the battery voltage requires more dimming of light, and then less withdrawal of energy from the battery and, thus, keeps the system “on”. Using the newly controller will increase the time of using the energy stored in the battery, and thus, the time of having the light “on”.
3. New Smart Battery Discharge Controller Design
3.1. Hardware Design
3.1.1. Power Supply Circuit
3.1.2. Voltage Scaling Circuit
3.1.3. LDR Sensor Circuit
3.1.4. Microcontroller Unit
3.1.5. LED Driving Circuit by PWM
- Optocoupler is an electronic device that transfers an electrical signal from one section of a circuit to another. It is composed of an infrared-emitting LED diode that is, optically, in line with a light-sensitive silicon semiconductor transistor, all enclosed in the same package . It is used in this study to isolate the PIC16F877A chip circuit, which operates at 5 V, from the LED lamp driving circuit, which operates at 12 V.
- Push–pull output: It is an electronic circuit that uses a pair of active transistor Negative-Positive-Negative type NPN (denoted by Q2 in Figure 9) connected to a positive voltage and a Positive-Negative-Positive type PNP (Q1) connected to a negative voltage. This circuit is used to enhance turn on–turn off for the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) and suppress the current spikes to enhance the operating conditions for the PWM signals generated by the PIC16F877A chip [23,24].
- MOSFET: It is an important component in relatively high frequency, high-efficiency switching applications in the electronic circuits. In this study, it is used to drive the LED streetlight using the PWM signals. IRLZ44N n-channel MOSFET with 49 A drains current and very low on-resistance of 17.5 mΩ is used in the driving circuit, provided with a heat sink to protect it from being overheated. The schematic diagram of the LED driving circuit is showing in Figure 9.
3.2. Controller Software
4. Experimental Procedure
5.1. CASE 1: New Smart Controller
5.2. CASE 2: Conventional Controller
Conflicts of Interest
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|Application||Stand-Alone Outdoor Lighting System|
|A1||Battery Voltage||12 volts|
|A2||Rated Wattage (LED Fixture)||30 W|
|A3||Hours Per Day Used||10 h|
|A4||Energy Per Day (A2 × A3)||300 Wh|
|A5||Total energy demand per day (A4)||300 Wh|
|A6||Total amp-hour demand per day (A5/A1)||25 Ah|
|A7||Peak dc power requirement (A2)||30 W|
|B1||Days of storage required (autonomy)||3 days|
|B2||Allowable depth-of-discharge limit||0.75|
|B3||Required battery capacity (A6 × B1/B2)||100 Ah add 20% losses = 120 Ah|
|B4||Amp-hour selected battery (Philadelphia solar company)||100 Ah|
|B5||Number of batteries in parallel (B3/B4)||1 battery|
|B6||Number of batteries in series (A1/battery voltage)||1 battery|
|B7||Total number of batteries (B5 × B6)||1 battery|
|B8||Total battery amp-hour capacity (B5 × B4)||100 Ah|
|B9||Total battery kilowatt-hour capacity (B8 × A1/1000)||1.200 kWh|
|PV array sizing|
|C1||Total energy demand per day (A4)||300 Wh|
|C2||Battery round trip efficiency (0.70–0.85)||0.8|
|C3||Required array output per day (C1/C2)||375 Wh|
|C4||Selected PV module max power voltage at STC (x.85)||15.1 V|
|C5||Selected PV module guaranteed power output at STC||90 Wp|
|C6||Peek sum hours at design tilt for design month||5 h|
|C7||Energy output per module per day (C5 × C6)||450 Wh|
|C8||Module energy output at operating temperature (DF × C7)|
DF = 0.80 for hot climates and critical applications.
DF = 0.90 for moderate climates and non-critical applications
|C9||Number of modules required to meet energy requirements|
|C10||Number of modules required per string (A1/C4) rounded to the next higher integer||1 module|
|C11||Number of strings in parallel (C9/C10) rounded to the next higher integer||1 string|
|C12||Number of modules to be purchased (C10 × C11)||1 module|
|C13||Nominal rated PV module output||90 Wp|
|C14||Nominal rated array output (C13 × C12)||90 W|
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Kiwan, S.; Abo Mosali, A.; Al-Ghasem, A. Smart Solar-Powered LED Outdoor Lighting System Based on the Energy Storage Level in Batteries. Buildings 2018, 8, 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090119
Kiwan S, Abo Mosali A, Al-Ghasem A. Smart Solar-Powered LED Outdoor Lighting System Based on the Energy Storage Level in Batteries. Buildings. 2018; 8(9):119. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090119Chicago/Turabian Style
Kiwan, Suhil, Anwar Abo Mosali, and Adnan Al-Ghasem. 2018. "Smart Solar-Powered LED Outdoor Lighting System Based on the Energy Storage Level in Batteries" Buildings 8, no. 9: 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090119