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Buildings 2018, 8(12), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8120173

One Step Ahead of Active Shooters: Are Our University Buildings Ready?

School of Planning, Design & Construction, Michigan State University, 552 W Circle Dr, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract

Active shooter incidents typically transpire quickly. Research reveals that 70 percent of active shooter incidents end in less than 5 min, and that a majority of incidents are over before law enforcement arrive on scene. This study analyzes the level of preparedness among a sample of faculty members on executing “Run, Hide, Fight” in two university buildings that range in layout complexity. It also analyzes design challenges impacting response time for a sample of police officers. A visibility graph analysis (VGA), a new architectural based simulation tactic, was conducted to measure visual exposure and access, the legibility of layouts, and the ease of wayfinding within these two buildings. The findings showed that VGA measures explained the perceived level of preparedness among faculty members, and the importance of visibility to the police when they clear the building room by room. These measures may have the ability to identify the risk of exposure to shooters while attempting to run or hide, and to identify potential hidden spots in any floor plan. View Full-Text
Keywords: active shooter prevention; simulation; hotspot mapping; visibility; university shootings active shooter prevention; simulation; hotspot mapping; visibility; university shootings
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kellom, K.; Nubani, L. One Step Ahead of Active Shooters: Are Our University Buildings Ready? Buildings 2018, 8, 173.

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