Next Article in Journal
One Step Ahead of Active Shooters: Are Our University Buildings Ready?
Previous Article in Journal
A Simplified Approach for the Annual and Spatial Evaluation of the Comfort Classes of Daylight Glare Using Vertical Illuminances
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Buildings 2018, 8(12), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8120172

Energetic, Cost, and Comfort Performance of a Nearly-Zero Energy Building Including Rule-Based Control of Four Sources of Energy Flexibility

1
HVAC Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University, PO Box 14400, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
2
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, PO Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland
3
Department of Building services Engineering, Faculty of Construction and Environment, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 1 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [2582 KB, uploaded 5 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

A focal point of ongoing research is matching the energy demand in the built environment to the energy supply from onsite generation, to maximize the self-consumption, and from the energy grids, to lower energy costs and reduce peak loads on the system. Energy flexibility addresses this task by modulating the energy demand in a building according to dynamic criteria such as electricity prices or onsite generation. This study addresses the potential of building performance simulation with real time rule-based control that provides energy flexibility based on onsite generation and hourly electricity prices, prioritizing energy matching, and reducing costs. The novelty relies on investigating four sources of energy flexibility simultaneously: shiftable machine loads, charging/discharging of batteries, hot-water storage tanks, and the building’s mass. The energy matching and flexibility actions provided a decrease of up to 4% in annual energy costs, yet risk increasing the cost by 9% when the savings are offset by the increase in the energy demand. As well, the method for price categorization strongly influences the cost performance of the flexibility actions. The outcomes of this study provide insight to energy flexibility sources in nearly-zero energy buildings and how their outcomes are affected by price thresholds. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy flexibility; energy matching; nearly-zero energy buildings; rule-based control energy flexibility; energy matching; nearly-zero energy buildings; rule-based control
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Manrique Delgado, B.; Ruusu, R.; Hasan, A.; Kilpeläinen, S.; Cao, S.; Sirén, K. Energetic, Cost, and Comfort Performance of a Nearly-Zero Energy Building Including Rule-Based Control of Four Sources of Energy Flexibility. Buildings 2018, 8, 172.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Buildings EISSN 2075-5309 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top